Chukchi leather mask
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Leather Mask.
The Chukchi used a type of mask called "hairy face" to represent an evil spirit who carried off naughty children. Except as beastly faces on Chukchi and Asian Eskimo eyeshades, animals were not represented in the rudimentary Siberian masking complex.

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Among the Chukchi, spirits were sometimes considered neutral, or even benevolent, but most of the time were aggressive and offensive. Even souls of dead relatives might, as among the Asian Eskimo, become dangerous after a few years when they began to long for company and tried to capture the souls of their kinfolk. Evil spirits were those of dead people who had led evil lives. To protect against them, the earth or snow around the dwelling was sprinkled with human urine or with old lamp oil. Besides family and personal amulets, firearms and weapons, and especially drums, were most effective for protecting against evil spirits because these spirits did not like loud noises.

Evil spirits (kelets), lived, according to Chukchi belief, in the upper world or underground, but not in the sea. Otherwise, they inhabited a wild world, symmetrical to man's, on the other side of a vertical separation. The kelets had various appearances, but they were as a rule, much larger or smaller than humans and had ugly pointed heads.

- S. Ia. Serov
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