Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History

Melinda Zeder

Curator Emeritus (Old World Archaeology and Archaeozoology)
Department / Division
Education
  • A.B., University of Michigan
  • M.A., University of Michigan
  • Ph.D., University of Michigan
Research Interests

Animal domestication; origins of food production, environmental impact of early agro-pastoral economies in the Near East, subsistence resources in emerging complex societies, Near Eastern archaeology, zooarchaeology

Publications
Article
  • Frantz, Laurent A. F., Haile, James, Lin, Audrey T., Scheu, Amelie, Geörg, Christina, Benecke, Norbert, Alexander, Michelle, Linderholm, Anna, Mullin, Victoria E., Daly, Kevin G., Battista, Vincent M., Price, Max, Gron, Kurt J., Alexandri, Panoraia, Arbogast, Rose-Marie, Arbuckle, Benjamin, B?l?sescu, Adrian, Barnett, Ross, Bartosiewicz, Lá, Baryshnikov, Gennady, Bonsall, Clive, Boric, Dušan, Boroneant, Adina, Bulatovic, Jelena, Çakirlar, Canan et al. 2019. "Ancient pigs reveal a near-complete genomic turnover following their introduction to Europe." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 116 (35):17231–17238. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1901169116
  • Zeder, Melinda A. 2018. "Why evolutionary biology needs anthropology: Evaluating core assumptions of the extended evolutionary synthesis." Evolutionary Anthropology 27 (6):267–284. https://doi.org/10.1002/evan.21747
  • Zeder, Melinda A. 2017. "Domestication as a model system for the extended evolutionary synthesis." Interface Focus 7 (5):20160133. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsfs.2016.0133
  • Boivin, Nicole L., Zeder, Melinda A., Fuller, Dorian Q., Crowther, Alison, Larson, Greger, Erlandson, Jon M., Denham, Tim, and Petraglia, Michael D. 2016. "Ecological consequences of human niche construction: Examining long-term anthropogenic shaping of global species distributions." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 113 (23):6388–6396. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1525200113
  • Erlandson, Jon M., Zeder, Melinda A., Boivin, Nicole L., Crowther, Alison, Denham, Tim, Fuller, Dorian Q., Larson, Greger, and Petraglia, Michael D. 2016. "Reply to Ellis et al.: Human niche construction and evolutionary theory." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 113 (31):E4437–E4438. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1609617113
  • Zeder, Melinda A. 2016. "Domestication as a model system for niche construction theory." Evolutionary Ecology 30 (2):325–348. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10682-015-9801-8
  • Zeder, Melinda A., Denham, Tim, Erlandson, Jon M., Boivin, Nicole L., Crowther, Alison, Fuller, Dorian Q., Larson, Greger, and Petraglia, Michael D. 2016. "Reply to Westaway and Lyman: Emus, dingoes, and archaeology's role in conservation biology." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 113 (33):E4759–E4760. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1610697113
  • Zeder, Melinda A. and Spitzer, Megan D. 2016. "New insights into broad spectrum communities of the Early Holocene Near East: The birds of Hallan Çemi." Quaternary Science Reviews 151:140–159. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2016.08.024
  • Forcina, Giovanni, Guerrini, Monica, van Grouw, Hein, Gupta, Brij K., Panayides, Panicos, Hadjigerou, Pantelis, Al-Sheikhly, Omar, Awan, Muhammad N., Khan, Aleem A., Zeder, Melinda A., and Barbanera, Filippo. 2015. "Impacts of biological globalization in the Mediterranean: Unveiling the deep history of human-mediated gamebird dispersal." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 112 (11):3296–3301. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1500677112
  • Zeder, Melinda A. 2015. "Reply to Mohlenhoff et al.: Human behavioral ecology needs a rethink that niche-construction theory can provide." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 112 (24):https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1508096112
  • Zeder, Melinda A. 2015. "Core questions in domestication research." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 112 (11):3191–3198. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1501711112
  • Zeder, Melinda A., Lemoine, Ximena, and Payne, Sebastian. 2015. "A New System for Computing Long-Bone Fusion Age Profiles in Sus scrofa." Journal of Archaeological Science 55:135–150. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2014.12.017
  • Braje, Todd J., Erlandson, Jon M., Aikens, C. M., Beach, Tim, Fitzpatrick, Scott, Gonzalez, Sara, Kennett, Douglas J., Kirch, Patrick V., Lee, Gyoung-Ah, Lightfoot, Kent, McClure, Sarah B., Panich, Lee M., Rick, Torben C., Roosevelt, Anna C., Schneider Tsim D., Smith, Bruce D., and Zeder, Melinda A. 2014. "An Anthropocene Without Archaeology—Should We Care?." The SAA Archaeological Record 14 (1):26–29.
  • Grayson, D. K., Meltzer, D. J., Buikstra, J. E., Flannery, K. V., Fowler, C. S., Marcus, J., O'Connell, J. F., Piperno, Dolores R., Sabloff, J. A., Smith, Bruce D., Thomas, D. H., Willerslev, E., and Zeder, Melinda A. 2014. "Early Americans: Respecting ancestors." Science 345 (6195):390–390. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.345.6195.390-b
  • Kintigh, Keith W., Altschul, Jeffrey H., Beaudry, Mary C., Drennan, Robert D., Kinzig, Ann P., Kohler, Timothy A., Limp, W. Frederick, Maschner, Herbert D. G., Michener, William K., Pauketat, Timothy R., Peregrine, Peter, Sabloff, Jeremy A., Wilkinson, Tony J., Wright, Henry T., and Zeder, Melinda A. 2014. "Grand Challenges for Archaeology." American Antiquity 79 (1):5–24. https://doi.org/10.7183/0002-7316.79.1.5
  • Kintigh, Keith W., Altschul, Jeffrey H., Beaudry, Mary C., Drennan, Robert D., Kinzig, Ann P., Kohler, Timothy A., Limp, W. Fredrick, Maschner, Herbert D. G., Michener, William K., Pauketat, Timothy R., Peregrine, Peter, Sabloff, Jeremy A., Wilkinson, Tony J., Wright, Henry T., and Zeder, Melinda A. 2014. "Grand challenges for archaeology." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 111 (3):879–880. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1324000111
  • Lemoine, Ximena, Zeder, Melinda A., Bishop, Katelyn J., and Rufolo, Scott J. 2014. "A New System for Computing Dentition-Based Age Profiles in Sus scrofa." Journal of Archaeological Science 47:179–193. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2014.04.002
  • Rowley-Conwy, Peter and Zeder, Melinda A. 2014. "Mesolithic domestic pigs at Rosenhof – or wild boar? A critical re-appraisal of ancient DNA and geometric morphometrics." World Archaeology 46 (5):813–824.
  • Rowley-Conwy, Peter, Zeder, Melinda A., and Bar-Oz, Guy. 2014. "Wild Boar or Domestic Pigs? Response to Evin et al." Quaternary International 46 (5):83.
  • Zeder, Melinda A. 2014. "Alternative to faith-based science." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 111 (28):https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1408209111
  • Smith, Bruce D. and Zeder, Melinda A. 2013. "The onset of the Anthropocene." Anthropocene 4:8–13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ancene.2013.05.001
  • Zeder, Melinda A., Bar-Oz, Guy, Rufolo, Scott J., and Hole, Frank. 2013. "New perspectives on the use of kites in mass-kills of Levantine gazelle: A view from Northeastern Syria." Quaternary International 297:110–125. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2012.12.045
  • Zeder, Melinda A. 2012. "The Broad Spectrum Revolution at 40: Resource diversity, intensification, and an alternative to optimal foraging explanations." Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 31 (3):241–264. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaa.2012.03.003
  • Zeder, Melinda A. 2012. "The Domestication of Animals." Journal of Anthropological Research 68 (2):161–190.
  • Bar-Oz, Guy, Zeder, Melinda A., and Hole, Frank. 2011. "Role of mass-kill hunting strategies in the extirpation of Persian gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa) in the northern Levant." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 108 (18):7345–7350. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1017647108
  • Zeder, Melinda A. 2011. "The Origins of Agriculture in the Near East." Current Anthropology 52 (S4):S221–S235. https://doi.org/10.1086/659307
  • Zeder, Melinda A. 2011. "Religion and the Revolution: The Legacy of Jacques Cauvin." Paléorient 37 (1):39–60.
  • Zeder, Melinda A. and Lapham, Heather A. 2010. "Assessing the reliability of criteria used to post-cranial bones in sheep, Ovis, and goats, Capra." Journal of Archaeological Science 37:2887–2905.
  • Zeder, Melinda A. and Pilaar, Suzanne E. 2010. "Assessing the reliability of criteria used to identify mandibles and mandibular teeth in sheep, Ovis, and goats, Capra." Journal of Archaeological Science 37 (2):225–242. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2009.10.002
  • Miller, Naomi F. and Zeder, Melinda A. 2009. "From Food and Fuel to Farms and Flocks: The Integration of Plant and Animal Remains in the Study of Ancient Agro-Pastoral Economies." Current Anthropology 50 (6):915–924. https://doi.org/10.1086/606035
  • Zeder, Melinda A. 2009. "The Neolithic Macro-(R)evolution: Macroevolutionary Theory and the Study of Culture Change." Journal of Archaeological Research 17 (1):1–63.
  • Zeder, Melinda A. and Smith, Bruce D. 2009. "A conversation on agricultural origins: Talking past each other in a crowded room." Current Anthropology 50 (5):681–691. https://doi.org/10.1086/605553
  • Zeder, Melinda A. 2008. "The Archaeobiology of the Khabur Basin." Bulletin of the Canadian Society for Mesopotamian Studies 29:21–32.
  • Zeder, Melinda A. 2008. "Domestication and early agriculture in the Mediterranean Basin: Origins, diffusion, and impact." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105 (33):11597–11604. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0801317105
  • Cowgill, L. W., Trinkaus, E., and Zeder, Melinda A. 2007. "Shanidar 10: A Middle Paleolithic immature distal lower limb from Shanidar Cave, Iraqi Kurdistan." Journal of Human Evolution 53 (2):213–223. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2007.04.003
  • Zeder, Melinda A. 2006. "Central Questions in the Domestication of Plants and Animals." Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews 15:105–111.
  • Zeder, Melinda A. 2006. "Archaeozoology in Southwest Asia: A Status Report Based on the Eighth Meeting of the Archaeozoology of Southwest Asia and Adjacent Areas Working Group." PalAcorient 32:137–147.
  • Zeder, Melinda A., Emshwiller, E., Smith, Bruce D., and Bradley, D. G. 2006. "Documenting Domestication: The Intersection of Gentics and Archaeology." Trends in Genetics 22 (3):139–155. https://doi.org/10.1080/00438240601022001
  • Zeder, Melinda A. 2003. "Comments on Leach, Human Domestication Reconsidered." Current Anthropology 44:363.
  • Zeder, Melinda A. 2001. "A Metrical Analysis of a Collection of Modern Goats (Capra hircus aegargus and C. h. hircus) from Iran and Iraq: Implications for the Study of Caprine Domestication." Journal of Archaeological Science 28 (1):61–79. https://doi.org/10.1006/jasc.1999.055
  • Zeder, Melinda A. and Hesse, B. 2000. "The initial domestication of goats (Capra hircus) in the Zagros mountains 10,000 years ago." Science 287 (5461):2254–2257.
  • Zeder, Melinda A. 1999. "Animal domestication in the Zagros: a review of past and current research." Paléorient 25 (2):11–25.
  • Zeder, Melinda A. 1997. "The American archaeologist: Results of the 1994 SAA Census (Redux)." SSA Bulletin 15 (4):26–31.
  • Bocherens, H., Fogel, Marilyn L., Tuross, Noreen C., and Zeder, Melinda A. 1995. "Preservation of Trophic Structure and Climatic Information Through Signatures in Fossil Mammals from a Pleistocene Cave in Southern England." Journal of Archaeological Science 22 (2):327–345.
  • Zeder, Melinda A. and Arter, Susan R. 1995. "Changing Patterns of Animal Utilization at Ancient Gordion." Paléorient 20 (2):105–118.
  • Zeder, Melinda A. 1994. "After the Revolution: Post-Neolithic Subsistence in Northern Mesopotamia." American Anthropologist 96 (1):97–126.
  • Zeder, Melinda A. 1994. "New Perspectives on Agricultural Origins in the Ancient Near East." AnthroNotes 16 (2):1–7. https://doi.org/10.5479/10088/22335
  • Zeder, Melinda A. 1990. "Animal Exploitation at Tell Halif." Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research (26): 24–30.
  • Zeder, Melinda A. 1988. "Understanding Urban Process through the Study of Specialized Subsistence Economy in the Near East." Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 7 (1):1–55. https://doi.org/10.1016/0278-4165(88)90006-2

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Chapter
  • Zeder, Melinda A. 2017. "Out of the Fertile Crescent: The dispersal of domestic livestock through Europe and Africa." in Human Dispersal and Species Movement, From Prehistory to the Present., edited by Zeder, Melinda A., 261–303. Cambridge, UK: University of Cambridge Press.
  • Zeder, Melinda A. 2017. "Out of the Fertile Crescent: The dispersal of domestic livestock through Europe and Africa." in Human Dispersal and Species Movement, From Prehistory to the Present., edited by Zeder, Melinda A., 261–303. Cambridge, UK: University of Cambridge Press.
  • Zeder, Melinda A. 2014. "Defining Domestication." in Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology, 2184–2194. Springer.
  • Zeder, Melinda A. 2012. "Pathways to Domestication." in Biodiversity in Agriculture: Domestication, Evolution, and Sustainability, edited by Gepts, P., Famula, T. R., Bettinger, R. L. et al., 227–259. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Zeder, Melinda A., Buikstra, Jane E., and van der Leeuw, Sander. 2010. "Interdisciplinary Studies in Archaeology." in Voices in American Archaeology, SAA 75th Anniversary Commemorative Volume, edited by Ashmore, W., Mills, B., and Lippert, Dorothy T., 220–269. Washington, DC: SAA.
  • Zeder, Melinda A. 2009. "Evolutionary Biology and the Emergence of Agriculture: The Value of Co-opted Models of Evolution in the Study of Culture Change." in Macroevolution in Human Prehistory: Evolutionary Theory and Processual Archaeology, edited by Prentiss, A., Kruijt, I., and Chatters, J., 157–210. Springer.
  • Piperno, Dolores R. 2006. "Identifying Manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and Other Crops in Pre-Columbian Tropical America Through Starch Grain Analysis:A Case Study from Central Panamá." in Documenting Domestication: New Genetic and Archaeological Paradigms, edited by Zeder, Melinda A., Bradley, Dan, Emschwiller, Eve, and Smith, Bruce D., 46–67. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
  • Smith, Bruce D. 2006. "Seed Size Increase as a Marker of Plant Domestication." in Documenting Domestication: New Genetic and Archaeological Paradigms, edited by Zeder, Melinda A., Emshwiller, E., Bradley, D., and Smith, Bruce D., 25–31. University of California Press.
  • Smith, Bruce D. 2006. "Documenting Domesticated Plants in the Archaeological Record." in Documenting Domestication: New Genetic and Archaeological Paradigms, edited by Zeder, Melinda A., Emshwiller, E., Bradley, D., and Smith, Bruce D., 15–24. University of California Press.
  • Zeder, Melinda A. 2006. "A critical examination of markers of initial domestication in goats (Capra hircus).." in Documenting Domestication: New Genetic and Archaeological Paradigms, edited by Zeder, Melinda A., Bradley, D. G., Emshwiller, E., and Smith, Bruce D., 181–208. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Zeder, Melinda A. 2006. "Archaeological Approaches to Documenting Animal Domestication." in Documenting Domestication: New Genetic and Archaeological Paradigms, edited by Zeder, Melinda A., Bradley, D., Emshwiller, E., and Smith, Bruce D., 36. University of California Press.
  • Zeder, Melinda A. 2006. "A critical examination of markers of initial domestication in goats (Capra hircus).." in Documenting Domestication: New Genetic and Archaeological Paradigms, edited by Zeder, Melinda A., Bradley, D. G., Emshwiller, E., and Smith, Bruce D., 181–208. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Zeder, Melinda A. 2006. "Archaeological Approaches to Documenting Animal Domestication." in Documenting Domestication: New Genetic and Archaeological Paradigms, edited by Zeder, Melinda A., Bradley, D., Emshwiller, E., and Smith, Bruce D., 36. University of California Press.
  • Zeder, Melinda A. 2006. "Reconciling Rates of Long Bone Fusion and Tooth Eruption and Wear in Sheep (Ovis) and Goat (Capra)." in Ageing and Sexing Animals from Archaeological Sites, edited by Ruscillo, D., 87–118. Oxbow Press.
  • Zeder, Melinda A., Emshwiller, E., Bradley, D., and Smith, Bruce D. 2006. "Documenting Domestication: Bringing Together Plants, Animals, Archaeology, and Genetics." in Documenting Domestication: New Genetic and Archaeological Paradigms, edited by Zeder, Melinda A., Emshwiller, E., Bradley, D., and Smith, Bruce D., 1–13. University of California Press.
  • Zeder, Melinda A., Emshwiller, E., Bradley, D., and Smith, Bruce D. 2006. "Documenting Domestication: Bringing Together Plants, Animals, Archaeology, and Genetics." in Documenting Domestication: New Genetic and Archaeological Paradigms, edited by Zeder, Melinda A., Emshwiller, E., Bradley, D., and Smith, Bruce D., 1–13. University of California Press.
  • Zeder, Melinda A. 2005. "New Perspectives on Livestock Domestication in the Fertile Crescent as viewed from the Zagros Mountains." in The First Steps of Animal Domestication: New Archaeozoological Approaches, edited by Vigne, D., Peters, J., and Helmer, D., 125–146. Oxbow Press.
  • Zeder, Melinda A. 2003. "Provisioning in Urban Societies: A View from Northern Mesopotam." in The Social Construction of Ancient Citie, edited by Monica, Smith., 156–183. Smithsonian Press.
  • Zeder, Melinda A. 2003. "Archaeological Sciences and the Origins of Agriculture." in Proceedings of the International Congress on Archaeological Sciences, edited by Matsui, Akira., 49–54. Nara National Research Institute for Cultural Properties.
  • Zeder, Melinda A. 2003. "Hiding in Plain Sight: The Value of Museum Collections in the Study of the Origins of Animal Domestication." in Documenta Archaeobiologiae 1: Deciphering Ancient Bones. The Research Potential of Bioarchaeological Collections , Yearbook of the State Collection of Anthropology and Palaeoanatomy, edited by Gisela, Grupe and Joris, Peters., 125–138. Mnchen, Germany. Rahden/Westf: Verlag M. Leidorf GmbH.
  • Zeder, Melinda A. and Blackman, M. James. 2003. "Economy and administration at Banesh Malyan exploring the potential of faunal and chemical data for understanding state process." in Yeki Bud, Yeki Nabud: Essays on the Archaeology of iran in Honor of William M. Summer, edited by Miller, N. F. and Abdi, K., 121–139. Costen Institute of Archaeology, University of California at Los Angeles.
  • Zeder, Melinda A. 1998. "Pigs and Emergent Complexity in the Ancient Near East." in Ancestors for the Pigs: Pigs in Prehistory, edited by Nelson, Sarah M., 109–122. Masca Research Papers in Science and Arch. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology.
  • Zeder, Melinda A. 1998. "Environment, Economy, and Subsistence on the Threshold of Urban Emergence in Northern Mesopotamia." in Espace Naturel, Espace Habité en Syrie Nord (10e-2e millénaire av. J.-C.)., edited by Fortin, M. and Aurench, O., 55–67. The Canadian Society for Mesopotamian Studies Bulletin. The Canadian Society for Mesopotamian Studies.
  • Zeder, Melinda A. 1998. "Regional Patterns of Animal Exploitation in the Khabur Basin, 7000 to 1500 B.C." in Man and the Animal World: Studies in Archaeozoology, Archaeology, Anthropology, and Palaeolinguistics in memoriam Sándor Bökönyi, edited by Bökönyi, Sándor and Anreiter, Peter., 569–582. Archaeolingua. Budapest: Archaeolingua Alapítvány.
  • Zeder, Melinda A. 1997. "Sheep and Goats." in The Oxford encyclopedia of archaeology in the Near East, Oxford University Press.
  • Zeder, Melinda A. 1996. "Sheep and Goats." in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East, Oxford Univeristy Press.
  • Zeder, Melinda A. and Arter, Susan R. 1996. "Patterns of Meat Consumption and Bone Use in a Mississippian Village." in Case Studies in Environmental Archaeology, edited by Reitz, Elizabeth J., Newsome, Lee A., and Scudder, Sylvia J., 319–338. Interdisciplinary Contributions to Archaelogy. New York: Plenum Press.
  • Zeder, Melinda A. 1995. "The Role of Pigs in Near Eastern Subsistence From the Vantage Point of the Southern Levant." in Retrieving the Past: Essays on Archaeological Research and Methodology in Honor of Gus Van Beek, edited by Seger, Joe D., 297–315. Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns/Cobb Institute of Archaeology.
  • Zeder, Melinda A. 1994. "Repatriation at the National Museum of Natural History, Present and Future." in Reckoning with the Dead: The Larsen Bay Repatriation and the Smithsonian Institution, edited by Bray, Tamara L. and Killion, Thomas W., 166–174. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.
  • Zeder, Melinda A. 1994. "Of Kings and Shepherds: Specialized Animal Economy in UR III Mesopotamia." in Chiefdoms and Early States in the Near East: the Orgnizantional Dynamics of Complexity, edited by Rothman, M. and Stein, G., 175–191. Prehistory Press.
  • Zeder, Melinda A. 1986. "The Equids from Tal-e Malyan." in Biehefte zum Tubinger Atlas des Vorderern Orients, edited by Meadow, R. H. and Verpmann, H. -P., 366–413. Tubingin: University of Tubingen.
  • Zeder, Melinda A. 1984. "Meat Distribution at the Highland Iranian Urban Center of Tal-e Malyan." in Animals and Archaeology: Vol 3: Herders and Their Flocks, edited by Clutton-Brock, J. and Grigson, C., 279–307.
  • Zeder, Melinda A. 1983. "Faunal Remains Analysis." in Phase 1 and 2 Cultural Resource Surveys of the Proposed Dualization of New Churchman's Road, Christiana, New Castle County, Delaware, edited by O'Connor, J., Cunningham, K. W., Custer, J. F., Bachman, D. C., and Rappleye, L., 97–101.

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Book
  • Zeder, Melinda A., Bradley, D., Emshwiller, E., and Smith, Bruce D. 2006. Documenting Domestication: New Genetic and Archaeological Paradigms. University of California Press.
  • Zeder, Melinda A. 1997. The American Archaeologist: A Profile. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press.
  • Zeder, Melinda A. 1997. The American Archaeologist: A Profile. Society for American Archaeology.
  • Meadow, Richard H. and Zeder, Melinda A. , eds. 1978. Approaches to Faunal Analysis in the Middle East. Cambridge, Mass: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University.