Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History

Carol Hotton

Resident Research Associate
Department / Division
  • Ph.D. University of California, Davis, 1988
  • M.S. University of California, Davis, 1982
  • B.S. George Washington University
Journal Article
  • Boyce, C. Kevin and Hotton, Carol L. 2010. "Prototaxites was Not a Taphonomic Artifact." American Journal of Botany, 97, (7) 1073.
  • Ren, Dong, Labandeira, Conrad C., Santiago-Blay, Jorge A., Rasnitsyn, Alexandr, Shih, ChungKun, Bashkuev, Alexei, Logan, M. Amelia V., Hotton, Carol L., and Dilcher, David. 2009. "A probable pollination mode before angiosperms: Eurasian, long-proboscid scorpionflies." Science, 326, (5954) 840–847.
  • Boyce, C. K., Hotton, Carol L., Fogel, Marilyn L., Cody, G. D., Hazen, Robert, Knoll, A. H., and Hueber, Francis M. 2007. "Devonian landscape heterogeneity recorded by a giant fungus." Geology, 35, (5) 399–402.
  • Li, C. S., Hueber, Francis M., and Hotton, Carol L. 2000. "A neotype for Drepanophycus spinaeformis Goeppert 1852." Canadian Journal of Botany, 78 889–902.
  • Hotton, Carol L. and Stein, W. E. 1994. "An ontogenetic model of growth for the Mississippian seed plant family Calamopityaceae." International Journal of Plant Sciences, 155 114–142.
  • Doyle, James A., Hotton, Carol L., and Ward, Jerome V. 1990. "Early Cretaceous Tetrads, Zonasulculate Pollen, and Winteraceae. II. Cladistic Analysis and Implication." American Journal of Botany, 77, (12) 1558–1568.
  • Doyle, James A., Hotton, Carol L., and Ward, Jerome V. 1990. "Early Cretaceous Tetrads, Zonasulculate Pollen, and Winteraceae. I. Taxonomy, Morphology,and Ultrastructure." American Journal of Botany, 77, (12) 1544–1557.

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Book Chapter
  • DiMichele, William A., Hook, Robert W., Kerp, Hans, Hotton, Carol L., Looy, Cindy V., and Chaney, Dan S. 2018. "Lower Permian flora of the Sanzenbacher Ranch, Clay County, Texas." In Transformative Paleobotany: Papers to Commemorate the Life and Legacy of Thomas N. Taylor. 95–126. Elsevier. (,
  • Hotton, Carol L. and Baghai-Riding, N. 2010. "Palynological evidence for conifer dominance within a heterogeneous landscape in the Late Jurassic Morrison Formation, U.S.A." In Plants in Mesozoic: Morphological Innovations, Phylogeny, Ecosystems. Gee, C. T., editor. 295–328. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.
  • Hotton, Carol L. 2002. "Palynology of the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in central Montana: Evidence for extraterrestrial impact as a cause of the terminal Cretaceous extinctions." In The Hell Creek Formation and the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in the Northern Great Plains – an Integrated Continental Record of the End of the Cretaceous. Hartman, J. H., Johnson, Kirk R., and Nichols, D. J., editors. 473–501. Boulder, Colorado: The Geological Society of America, Special Paper 361.
  • Hotton, Carol L., Hueber, Francis M., Griffing, D. H., and Bridge, J. S. 2001. "Early terrestrial plant environments: An example from the Lower Devonian of Gaspé, Quebec, Canada." In Plants Invade the Land: Evolutionary and Environmental Perspectives. Gensel, P. G. and Edwards, D., editors. 179–212. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Griffing, D. H., Bridge, J. S., and Hotton, Carol L. 2000. "Coastal-fluvial palaeoenvironments and plant palaeoecology of the Lower Devonian (Emsian), Gaspé Bay, Québec, Canada." In New Perspectives on the Old Red Sandstone. Friend, P. F. and Williams, B. P. J., editors. 61–84. London: The Geological Society Special Publications 180.
  • Stein, W. E. and Hotton, Carol L. 1997. "Fabric analysis and plant anatomy." In Fossil Plants and Spores: Modern Techniques. Jones, T. P. and Rowe, N. P., editors. 97–104. Bath, United Kingdom: Geological Society Publishing House.
  • Hotton, Carol L., Leffingwell, H. A., and Skvarla, John J. 1994. "Pollen ultrastructure of Pandanaceae and the fossil genus Pandaniidites." In Ultrastructure of Fossil Spores and Pollen. Kurmann, M. H. and Doyle, J. A., editors. 173–191. Richmon, United Kingdom: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Doyle, J. A. and Hotton, Carol L. 1991. "Diversification of early angiosperms in a cladistic context." In Pollen and Spores: Patterns of Diversification. Blackmore, Stephen H. and Barnes, S. H., editors. 169–195. Oxford, United Kingdom: Clarendon Press.