Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History

Walter Adey

Research Botanist Emeritus
Department / Division
Education
  • B.S., MIT; Geophysics
  • MIT/Harvard University; Graduate Work,Biology/Paleontology
  • PhD, University of Michigan; Botany
Research Interests

Biosystematics of coralline algae; algal biogeography; coral reef metabolism and its relationship to the algal community; benthic ecosystem dynamics in relation to algae; microcosm and mesocosm techniques; solar/algal methods in aquaculture and municipal/industrial water purification.

Publications
  • Rahman, M. Azizur, Halfar, Jochen, Adey, Walter H., Nash, Merinda, Paulo, Carlos, and Dittrich, Maria. 2019. "The role of chitin-rich skeletal organic matrix on the crystallization of calcium carbonate in the crustose coralline alga Leptophytum foecundum." Scientific Reports, 9 11869. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-47785-2.
  • Adey, Walter H., Hernandez-Kantun, Jazmin, Gabrielson, Paul W., Nash, Merinda C., and Hayek, Lee-Ann C. 2018. Phymatolithon (Melobesioideae, Hapalidiales) in the Boreal–Subarctic Transition Zone of the North Atlantic. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press. In Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.1943-667X.41.
  • Calahan, Dean, Osenbaugh, Edward, and Adey, Walter H. 2018. "Expanded algal cultivation can reverse key planetary boundary transgressions." Heliyon, 4, (2). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2018.e00538.
  • Hetzinger, S., Halfar, J., Kronz, A., Simon, K., Adey, Walter H., and Steneck, R. S. 2018. "Reproducibility of Clathromorphum compactum coralline algal Mg/Ca ratios and comparison to high-resolution sea surface temperature data." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 220 96–109. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2017.09.044.
  • Light, Tricia, Williams, Branwen, Halfar, Jochen, Hou, Alicia, Zajacz, Zoltan, Tsay, Alexandra, and Adey, Walter H. 2018. "Advancing Mg/Ca Analysis of Coralline Algae as a Climate Proxy by Assessing LA-ICP-OES Sampling and Coupled Mg/Ca-δ 18 O Analysis." Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, (19) 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018GC007504.
  • Nash, Merinda C. and Adey, Walter H. 2018. "Anatomical structure overrides temperature controls on magnesium uptake -- calcification in the Arctic/subarctic coralline algae Leptophytum laeve and Kvaleya epilaeve (Rhodophyta; Corallinales)." Biogeosciences, (15) 781–795. https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-2017-180.
  • Pena, Viviana, Hernandez-Kantun, Jazmin J., Adey, Walter H., and Le Gall, Line. 2018. "Assessment of coralline species diversity in the European coasts supported by sequencing of type material: the case study of Lithophyllum nitorum (Corallinales, Rhodophyta)." Cryptogamie Algologie, 39, (1) 123–137. https://doi.org/10.7872/crya/v39.iss1.2018.123.
  • Williams, Siobhan, Adey, Walter H., Halfar, Jochen, Kronz, Andreas, Gagnon, Patrick, Belanger, David, and Nash, Merinda. 2018. "Effects of light and temperature on Mg uptake, growth, and calcification in the proxy climate archive Clathromorphum compactum." Biogeosciences, 15, (19) 5745–5759. https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-15-5745-2018.
  • Chan, P., Halfar, J., Adey, Walter H., Hetzinger, S., Zack, T., Moore, G. W. K., Wortmann, U. G., Williams, B., and Hou, A. 2017. "Multicentennial record of Labrador Sea primary productivity and sea-ice variability archived in coralline algal barium." Nature Communications, 8, (15543). https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms15543.
  • Chan, P., Halfar, J., Norley, C. J. D., Pollmann, S. I., Adey, Walter H., and Holdsworth, D. W. 2017. "Micro-computed tomography: Applications for high-resolution skeletal density determinations: An example using annually banded crustose coralline algae." Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 18, (9) 3542–3553. https://doi.org/10.1002/2017GC006966.
  • Kangas, Patrick, Mulbry, Walter, Klavon, Philip, Laughinghouse, H. D., and Adey, Walter H. 2017. "High diversity within the periphyton community of an algal turf scrubber on the Susquehanna River." Ecological Engineering, 108, (Pt. B) 564–572. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2017.05.010.
  • Moore, G. W. K., Halfar, J., Majeed, H., Adey, Walter H., and Kronz, A. 2017. "Amplification of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation associated with the onset of the industrial-era warming." Scientific Reports, 7, (40861). https://doi.org/10.1038/srep40861.
  • Nash, Merinda C. and Adey, Walter H. 2017. "Multiple phases of mg-calcite in crustose coralline algae suggest caution for temperature proxy and ocean acidification assessment: lessons from the ultrastructure and biomineralization in Phymatolithon (Rhodophyta, Corallinales)1." Journal of Phycology, 53, (5) 970–984. https://doi.org/10.1111/jpy.12559.
  • Blersch, D. M., Kangas, P. C., and Adey, Walter H. 2016. "Freshwater Marsh Community Structure in a Florida Everglades Mesocosm." Transactions of the ASABE, 59, (5) 1305–1312. https://doi.org/10.13031/trans.59.11599.
  • Hernández-Kantún, Jazmin J., Gabrielson, Paul, Hughey, Jeffery R., Pezzolesi, Laura, Rindi, Fabio, Robinson, Nestor M., Peña, Viviana, Riosmena-Rodriguez, Rafael, Le Gall, Line, and Adey, Walter H. 2016. "Reassessment of branched Lithophyllum spp. (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) in the Caribbean Sea with global implications." Phycologia, 55, (6) 619–639. https://doi.org/10.2216/16-7.1.
  • Hernández-Kantún, Jazmin J., Hall-Spencer, J., Grall, J., Adey, Walter H., Rindi, F., Maggs, I. B., and Pena, V. 2016. "North Atlantic Rhodolith Beds." In Rhodolith/maerl beds: a global perspective. Riosmena-Rodriguez, Rafael, Nelson, W., and Aguirre, J., editors. New York: Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
  • Jesionek, Michel B., Bahia, Ricardo G., Hernandez-Kanttun, Jazmin J., Adey, Walter H., Yoneshigue-Valentin, Yocie, Longo, Leila L., and Amado-Filho, Gilberto M. 2016. "A taxonomic account of non-geniculate coralline algae (Corallinophycidae, Rhodophyta) from shallow reefs of the Abrolhos Bank, Brazil." Algae, 31, (4) 317–340. https://doi.org/10.4490/algae.2016.31.11.16.
  • Adey, Walter H., Halfar, Jochen, Humphreys, Alexander, Suskiewicz, Thew, Belanger, David, Gagnon, Patrick, and Fox, Michael. 2015. "Subarctic Rhodolith Beds Promote Longevity of Crustose Coralline Algal Buildups and Their Climate Archiving Potential." Palaios, 30, (4) 281–293. https://doi.org/10.2110/palo.2014.075.
  • Adey, Walter H., Hernández-Kantún, Jazmin J., Johnson, Gabriel, and Gabrielson, Paul W. 2015. "DNA sequencing, anatomy, and calcification patterns support a monophyletic, subarctic, carbonate reef-forming Clathromorphum (Hapalidiaceae, Corallinales, Rhodophyta)." Journal of Phycology, 51, (1) 189–203. https://doi.org/10.1111/jpy.12266.
  • Bahia, Ricardo G., Amado-Filho, Gilberto, Maneveldt, Gavin W., Adey, Walter H., Johnson, Gabriel, Jesionek, Michel B., and Longo, Leila L. 2015. "Sporolithon yoneshigueae sp. nov. (Sporolithales, Corallinophycidae, Rhodophyta), a new rhodolith-forming coralline alga from the southwest Atlantic." Phytotaxa, 224, (2) 140–158. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.224.2.2.
  • Bougeois, Laurie, Williams, Branwen, Halfar, Jochen, Konar, Brenda, Adey, Walter H., Kronz, Andreas, and Wortmann, Ulrich G. 2015. "Does the Coralline Alga Leptophytum foecundum (Kjellman) Capture Paleoenvironmental Variability in the Arctic Ocean?" Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, 47, (2) 375–387. https://doi.org/10.1657/AAAR0014-061.
  • Calahan, Dean, Blersch, David, and Adey, Walter H. 2015. "Weeds in the algae garden – A source of biomass for the algae-to-biofuels program." Ecological Engineering, 85 275–282. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2015.10.014.
  • Hernández-Kantún, Jazmin J., Rindi, Fabio, Adey, Walter H., Heesch, Svenja, Peña, Viviana, Le Gall, Line, and Gabrielson, Paul W. 2015. "Sequencing type material resolves the identity and distribution of the generitype Lithophyllum incrustans, and related European species L. hibernicum and L. bathyporum (Corallinales, Rhodophyta)." Journal of Phycology: An International Journal of Algal Research, 51, (4) 791–807. https://doi.org/10.1111/jpy.12319.
  • Laughinghouse, Haywood Dail, Müller, Kirsten M., Adey, Walter H., Lara, Yannick, Young, Robert, and Johnson, Gabriel P. 2015. "Evolution of the Northern Rockweed, Fucus distichus, in a Regime of Glacial Cycling: Implications for Benthic Algal Phylogenetics." PloS One, 10, (12) 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143795.
  • Peña, Viviana, Pardo, Cristina, López, Lúa, Carro, Belén, Hernández-Kantún, Jazmin J., Adey, Walter H., Bárbara, Ignacio, Barreiro, Rodolfo, and Gall, Line Le. 2015. "Phymatolithon lusitanicum sp. nov. (Hapalidiales, Rhodophyta): The Third Most Abundant Maerl-Forming Species in the Atlantic Iberian Peninsula." Cryptogamie, Algologie, 36, (4) 429–459. https://doi.org/10.7872/crya/v36.iss4.2015.429.
  • Bahia, Ricardo G., Amado-Filho, Gilberto, Maneveldt, Gavin W., Adey, Walter H., Johnson, Gabriel, Marins, Bianca V., and Longo, Leila L. 2014. "Sporolithon tenue sp. nov. (Sporolithales, Corallinophycidae, Rhodophyta): A new rhodolith-forming species from the tropical southwestern Atlantic." Phycological Research, 62, (1) 44–54. https://doi.org/10.1111/pre.12033.
  • Hernández-Kantún, Jazmin J., Riosmena-Rodriguez, Rafael, Adey, Walter H., and Rindi, Fabio. 2014. "Analysis of the cox2-3 spacer region for population diversity and taxonomic implications in rhodolith-forming species (Rhodophyta: Corallinales)." Phytotaxa, 190, (1) 331–354. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.190.1.20.
  • Sandefur, Heather N., Johnston, Ryan Z., Matlock, Marty D., Costello, Thomas A., Adey, Walter H., and Laughinghouse IV, Haywood D. 2014. "Hydrodynamic regime considerations for the cultivation of periphytic biofilms in two tertiary wastewater treatment systems." Ecological Engineering, 71 527–532. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2014.07.070.
  • Sherman, Clark E., Fletcher, Charles H., Rubin, Ken H., Simmons, Kathleen R., and Adey, Walter H. 2014. "Sea-level and reef accretion history of Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage 7 and late Stage 5 based on age and facies of submerged late Pleistocene reefs, Oahu, Hawaii." Quaternary Research, 81, (1) 138–150. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yqres.2013.11.001.
  • Adey, Walter H., Halfar, Jochen, and Williams, Branwen. 2013. The Coralline Genus Clathromorphum Foslie emend. Adey: Biological, Physiological, and Ecological Factors Controlling Carbonate Production in an Arctic-Subarctic Climate Archive. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press. In Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences, 40. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.1943667X.40.1.
  • Adey, Walter H., Laughinghouse, Haywood Dail, Miller, John B., Hayek, Lee-Ann C., Thompson, Jesse G., Bertman, Steven, Hampel, Kristin, and Puvanendran, Shanmugam. 2013. "Algal turf scrubber (ATS) floways on the Great Wicomico River, Chesapeake Bay: productivity, algal community structure, substrate and chemistry." Journal of Phycology, 49, (3) 489–501. https://doi.org/10.1111/jpy.12056.
  • Halfar, Jochen, Adey, Walter H., Kronz, Andreas, Hetzinger, Steffen, Edinger, Evan, and Fitzhugh, William W. 2013. "Arctic sea-ice decline archived by multicentury annual-resolution record from crustose coralline algal proxy." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110, (49) 19737–19741. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1313775110.
  • Hetzinger, S., Halfar, J., Zack, T., Mecking, J. V., Kunz, B. E., Jacob, D. E., and Adey, Walter H. 2013. "Coralline algal Barium as indicator for 20th century northwestern North Atlantic surface ocean freshwater variability." Scientific Reports, 3, (1761). https://doi.org/10.1038/srep01761.
  • Nash, M. C., Opdyke, B. N., Troitzsch, U., Russell, B. D., Adey, Walter H., Kato, A., Diaz-Pulido, G., Brent, C., Gardner, M., Prichard, J., and Kline, D. I. 2013. "Dolomite-rich coralline algae in reefs resist dissolution in acidified conditions." Nature Climate Change, (3) 268–272. https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate1760.
  • Johnson, Ladd E., Brawley, Susan H., and Adey, Walter H. 2012. "Secondary spread of invasive species: historic patterns and underlying mechanisms of the continuing invasion of the European rockweed Fucus serratus in eastern North America." Biological Invasions, 14, (1) 79–97. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-011-9976-z.
  • Adey, Walter H. and Hayek, Lee-Ann C. 2011. "Elucidating Marine Biogeography with Macrophytes: Quantitative Analysis of the North Atlantic Supports the Thermogeographic Model and Demonstrates a Distinct Subarctic Region in the Northwestern Atlantic." Northeastern Naturalist, 18 1–128. https://doi.org/10.1656/045.018.m801.
  • Adey, Walter H., Kangas, Patrick C., and Mulbry, Walter. 2011. "Algal Turf Scrubbing: Cleaning Surface Waters with Solar Energy while Producing a Biofuel." Bioscience, 61, (6) 434–441. https://doi.org/10.1525/bio.2011.61.6.5.
  • Halfar, J., Hetzinger, S., Adey, Walter H., Zack, T., Gamboa, G., Kunz, B., Williams, B., and Jacob, D. E. 2011. "Coralline algal growth-increment widths archive North Atlantic climate variability." Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology, 302, (1-2) 71–80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2010.04.009.
  • Hetzinger, S., Halfar, J., Mecking, J. V., Keenlyside, N. S., Kronz, A., Steneck, R. S., Adey, Walter H., and Lebednik, P. A. 2011. "Marine proxy evidence linking decadal North Pacific and Atlantic climate." Climate Dynamics, 39, (6) 1447–1455. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-011-1229-4.
  • Hetzinger, S., Halfar, J., Zack, T., Gamboa, G., Jacob, D. E., Kunz, B. E., Kronz, A., Adey, Walter H., Lebednik, P. A., and Steneck, Robert S. 2011. "High-resolution analysis of trace elements in crustose coralline algae from the North Atlantic and North Pacific by laser ablation ICP-MS." Palaeogeography palaeoclimatology palaeoecology, 302, (1-2) 81–94. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2010.06.004.
  • Peña, Viviana, Adey, Walter H., Riosmena‐Rodríguez, Rafael, Jung, Moon‐Yung, Afonso‐Carrillo, Julio, Choi, Han‐Gu, and Bárbara, Ignacio. 2011. "Mesophyllum sphaericum sp. Nov. (Corallinales, rhodophyta): a new maërl-forming species from the northeast Atlantic." Journal of Phycology, 47, (4) 911–927. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1529-8817.2011.01015.x.
  • Williams, B., Halfar, Jochen, Steneck, Robert S., Wortmann, U. G., Hetzinger, S., Adey, Walter H., Lebednik, P., and Joachimski, M. 2011. "Twentieth century delta C-13 variability in surface water dissolved inorganic carbon recorded by coralline algae in the northern North Pacific Ocean and the Bering Sea." Biogeosciences, 8, (1) 165–174. https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-8-165-2011.
  • Gamboa, G., Halfar, Jochen, Hetzinger, S., Adey, Walter H., Zack, T., Kunz, B., and Jacob, D. E. 2010. "Mg/Ca ratios in coralline algae record northwest Atlantic temperature variations and North Atlantic Oscillation relationships." Journal of Geophysical Research. C. Oceans, 115 C12044–C12044. https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JC006262.
  • Hetzinger, Steffen, Halfar, Jochen, Kronz, Andreas, Steneck, Robert S., Adey, Walter H., Lebednik, Phillip A., and Schone, Bernd R. 2009. "High-resolution Mg/Ca ratios in a coralline red alga as a proxy for Bering Sea temperature variations from 1902 to 1967." Palaios, 24, (6) 406–412. https://doi.org/10.2110/palo.2008.p08-116r.
  • Adey, Walter H. and Kangas, P. 2008. "Greenhouses, Microcosms and Mesocosms." In Encyclopedia of Ecology. Jorgensen, Sven Erik and Fath, Brian, editors. 1782–1796. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
  • Adey, Walter H., Lindstrom, S., Hommersand, M., and Muller, K. 2008. "The biogeographic original of Arctic endemic seaweeds: a Thermogeographic view." Journal of Phycology, 44 1384–1394.
  • Kangas, P. and Adey, Walter H. 2008. "Mesocosm Management." In Encyclopedia of Ecology. Jorgensen, Sven Erik and Fath, Brian, editors. 2308–2313. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
  • Adey, Walter H. and Loveland, Karen. 2007. Dynamic Aquaria, Building and Restoring Living Ecosystems. 3rd ed. New York: Elsevier/Academic Press.
  • Adey, Walter H. 2006. "Lessons Learned from the Construction and Operation of Microcosms and Mesocosms." In Restoration of Coral Reef Ecosystems. Precht, W., editor. 30.
  • Athanasiadis, A. and Adey, Walter H. 2006. "The Genus Leptophytum Adey (Melobesioideae, Corallinales) on the northern Pacific Coast of North America." Botanica Marina, 49, (1) 134.
  • Adey, Walter H. 2005. "Marine Plant Diversity." In Plant Conservation, a natural history approach. Krupnick, Gary A. and Kress, W. John, editors. 25–42.
  • Adey, Walter H. 2005. "Degradation of algae in coral reefs." In Plant Conservation, a natural history approach. Krupnick, Gary A. and Kress, W. John, editors. 155–160.
  • Adey, Walter H., Chamberlain, Y., and Irvine, L. 2005. "An SEM-based analysis of the morphology, anatomy, and reproduction of Lithothamnion tophiforme (Esper) Unger (Corallinales, Rhodophyta), with a comparative study of associated North Atlantic Arctic/Subarctic Melobesiodeae." Journal of Phycology, 41 1010–1024.
  • Adey, Walter H. and Hayek, Lee-Ann C. 2005. "The biogeographic structure of the northwestern Atlantic rocky shore intertidal." Crytogamie Algolgie, 26, (1) 35–66.
  • Adey, Walter H. and Norris, James N. 2005. "Alteration of kelp communities in the northwestern North Atlantic." In Plant Conservation, a natural history approach. Krupnick, Gary A. and Kress, W. John, editors. 161–175.
  • Sherman, C. E., Fletcher, C. H., Rubin, K. H., Muhs, D. R., Simmons, K. R., and Adey, Walter H. 2005. "Age and facies of submerged late Pleistocene reefs, Oahu, Hawaii: implications for stage 7 and late stage 5 sea levels." Submission to Marine Geology, 000.
  • Athanasiadis, A., Adey, Walter H., and Lebednik, P. 2004. "The genus Mesophyllum (Melobesiodeae, Corallines, Rhodophyta) on the northern Pacific Coast of North America." Phycologia, 43, (2) 1–45.
  • Athanasiadis, A. and Adey, Walter H. 2003. "Proposal to conserve the name Lithophyllum laeve Stromfelt against L. laeve Kutzing (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) with a conserved type." Taxon, 52 342–350.
  • Streb, C., Biermann, E., Lutz, Sue M., Kangas, P., and Adey, Walter H. 2003. "The energy basis of a subtropical wetland mesocosm." In Emergy Synthesis 2: theory and applications of energy methodology. Brown, M., editor. 339–347.
  • Adey, Walter H., Athanasiadis, A., and Lebednik, P. 2001. "Leptophytum laeve: taxonomy and biogeography of the genera Leptophytum and Phymatolithon (Corallinales, Rhodophyta)." European Journal of Phycology, 36 191–203.
  • Adey, Walter H. and Steneck, Robert S. 2001. "Thermogeography over time creates biogeographic regions: a temperature/space/time integrated model and an abundance-weighted test for benthic marine algae." Journal of Phycology, 37 1–22.
  • Adey, Walter H. 2000. "Coral reef ecosystems and human health, biodiversity counts." Ecosystem Health, 6 227–236.
  • Adey, Walter H., McConnaughey, T., Small, A., and Spoon, D. 2000. "Coral Reefs: Endangered, Biodiverse, Genetic Resources." In Seas at the Millenium: An Environmental Evaluation. Charles, R. C. S., editor. 33–42.
  • McConnaughey, T., Adey, Walter H., and Small, A. 2000. "Community and Environmental Influences on Reef Coral Calcification." Limnology and Oceanography, 45, (7) 1667–1671.
  • Small, A. and Adey, Walter H. 2000. "Reef corals, zooxanthellae and free-living algae: a microcosm that demonstrates synergy between calcification and primary production." Ecological Engineering, 16, (4) 443–457.
  • Adey, Walter H. 1999. "Algal-controlled ecosystems in oligotrophic seas: keys to coral reef evolution and degradation." 16th International Botanical Congress, 19.10.1 236.
  • Finn, M., Kangas, P., and Adey, Walter H. 1999. "Mangrove Ecosystem Development in Biosphere II." Ecological Engineering, 13 173–178.
  • Adey, Walter H. 1998. "Algal Turf Water Purification Method. (Phosphorous precipitation in algal cell Walls)." 5,851,398.
  • Adey, Walter H. 1998. "Coral Reefs, conservation by valuation and the utilization of pharmaceutical potential." In Coral Reefs: Challenges and Opportunities for Sustainable Development. 72–75.
  • Adey, Walter H. 1998. "Coral Reefs: algal structured and mediated ecosystems in shallow, turbulent alkaline waters." Journal of Phycology, 34 393–406.
  • Adey, Walter H. and Loveland, K. 1998. Dynamic Aquaria. Academic Press.
  • Adey, Walter H. and Purgason, R. 1998. "Animal Feedstocks Comprising Harvested Algae Turf and Method for Preparing and Using the Same." 5,715,774.
  • Jameson, Stephen C., Adey, Walter H., and Spoon, Don. 1998. "Rapid ecological assessment of the Cayos Miskitos Marine Reserve with notes on the shallow-water stony corals from Nicaragua." Atoll Research Bulletin, 457 1–15. (Atoll Research Bulletin) https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00775630.457.1.
  • Small, A., Adey, Walter H., and Spoon, D. 1998. "Are current estimates of coral reef biodiversity too low? The view through the window of a microcosm." Atoll Research Bulletin, 458 1–20. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00775630.458.1.
  • Adey, Walter H., Finn, M., Kangas, P., Lange, L., Luckett, C., and Spoon, D. 1996. "A Florida Everglades Mesocosm - model veracity after four years of self organization." Ecological Engineering, 6, (1-3) 171–224.
  • Adey, Walter H., Luckett, C., and Smith, M. 1996. "Purification of industrially-contaminated ground waters using controlled ecosystems." Ecological Engineering, 7 191–212.
  • Craggs, R., Adey, Walter H., Jessup.B., and Oswald, W. 1996. "A controlled stream mesocosm for tertiary and higher treatment of sewage." Ecological Engineering, 6, (1-3) 149–170.
  • Kangas, P. and Adey, Walter H. 1996. "Mesocosms and ecological engineering. Special Issue of Ecological Engineering." Ecological Engineering, 6, (1-3) 1–6.
  • Luckett, C., Adey, Walter H., Morrissey, J., and Spoon, D. 1996. "Coral reef mesocosms and microcosms - Successes, problems and the future of laboratory models." Ecological Engineering, 6, (1-3) 57–73.
  • Small, A., Adey, Walter H., Lutz, Sue M., Roberts, D., and Reese, E. 1996. "A macrophyte-based rapid biosurvey of stream water quality - restoration at the watershed scale." Restoration Ecology, 4, (2) 124–145.
  • Adey, Walter H. 1995. "Cost effective wastewater remediation for the protection of coral reef environments." Env.Sustainable Dev.Proc.Ser., 9 46–47.
  • Adey, Walter H. 1995. "An algal solution to large scale wastewater amelioration." Ecological Society of America Annual Meeting, 76, (2) 1.
  • Adey, Walter H. 1995. "Controlled Ecologies." In Encyclopedia of Environmental Biology. Nierenburg, W. A., editor. 6.
  • Adey, Walter H., Craggs, R., Jensen, K., St. John, M., Green, F. B., and Oswald, W. 1995. "Phosphorus removal from wastewater using an algal turf scrubber." In Proceedings of the International Association on Water Quality, March 26. 1–11.
  • Burke, R., Macintyre, Ian G., and Adey, Walter H. 1995. "Overview of the Holocene history, architecture and structural components of Tague Bay reef and lagoon." In Terrestrial and Marine Geology of St. Croix, US Virgin Islands. Hubbard, Dennis K., editor. In Special Publication (West Indies Laboratory); no. 8.
  • Adey, Walter H. 1994. "Algal turf scrubbers and model ecosystems - a continuing dialog." Aquarium Frontiers, Spring 1–7.
  • Adey, Walter H., Luckett, C., and Jensen, K. 1993. "Phosphorous removal from natural waters using controlled algal production." Restoration Ecology, 1 1–11.
  • Adey, Walter H. 1992. "Ecosystem Encounters: Lessons in Synthetic Ecology." The Science Teacher, 59, (6) 22–27.
  • Adey, Walter H. 1992. "Water purification system and apparatus - microcosm system integration with ATS." U.S.patent no.5,097,795, 000.
  • Adey, Walter H. and Loveland, K. 1991. Dynamic Aquaria: Building Living Ecosystems. Academic Press.
  • Carpenter, R., Hackney, J., and Adey, Walter H. 1991. "Measurements of primary productivity and nitrogenase activity of coral reef algae in a chamber incorporation oscillatory flow." Limnology and Oceanography, 36 40–49.
  • Finn, M. and Adey, Walter H. 1991. "Mesocosms: encapsulated ecosystems on display." Sea Technology, 32, (4) 85–88.
  • Loveland, K., Marcus, P., Prentiss, P., and Adey, Walter H. 1991. The earth in our hands. Smithsonian Institution.
  • Adey, Walter H. 1990. "Water purification system and apparatus." United States Patent, 4,966,096 1–14, 3.
  • Macintyre, Ian G. and Adey, Walter H. 1990. "Buck Island Bar, St. Croix, U.S.V.I., A reef that cannot catch up with sea level." Atoll Research Bulletin, 336 1–7. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00775630.336.1.
  • Townsend, R. and Adey, Walter H. 1990. "Morphology of the Caribbean alga:Goniolithon improcerum Foslie et Howe in Foslie (Corallinaceae, Rhodophyceae)." Botanica Marina, 33 99–116.
  • Adey, Walter H. 1989. "On National Parks - conservation, education or restoration? A role for synthetic ecology." Courier, 34 8–11.
  • Adey, Walter H. 1989. The biology, ecology amd mariculture of Mithrax spinosissimus based on cultured algal turfs. Mariculture Institute.
  • Adey, Walter H. and Hackney, J. 1989. "Harvest production of coral reef algal turfs." In The biology, ecology and mariculture of Mithrax spinosissimus based on cultured algal turfs. Los Angeles: Mariculture Institute.
  • Burke, R., Adey, Walter H., and Macintyre, Ian G. 1989. "Pre-Holocene control on Holocene bank barrier reef development, U.S.V.I." 12th Caribbean Geological Conference, 000.
  • Hackney, J., Carpenter, R., and Adey, Walter H. 1989. "Characteristic adaptations to grazing among algal turfs on a Caribbean coral reef." Phycologia, 23 224–250.
  • Porter, K., Iglehart, J., Craig, M., and Adey, Walter H. 1989. "Mariculture Techniques for Mithrax spinosissimus including broodstock, larval and post larval rearing and growout." In The biology, ecology and mariculture of Mithrax spinosissimus based on cultured algal turfs. 75. Los Angeles: Mariculture Institute.
  • Adey, Walter H. 1987. "Food production in Low nutrient seas - bringing tropical ocean deserts to life." Bioscience, 37, (5) 340–348.
  • Adey, Walter H. 1987. "Marine Microcosms." In Restoration ecology: a synthetic approach to ecological research. Jordan, W., Aber, J., and Gilpin, M., editors. 342.
  • Adey, Walter H. and Goertemiller, T. 1987. "Coral reef algal turfs - master producers in nutrient poor seas." Phycologia, 26 374–386.
  • Griffith, Peter C., Cubit, John D., Adey, Walter H., and Norris, James N. 1987. "Computer-automated Flow Respirometry: Metabolism Measurements on a Caribbean Reef Flat and in a Microcosm." Limnology and Oceanography, 32, (2) 442–451.
  • Adey, Walter H. 1986. "Coralline algae as indicators of sea levels. Chapter 11." In Manual for the collection and evaluation of sea level data. de Plassche, Van, editor. 229–280.
  • Adey, Walter H. and Steneck, Robert S. 1985. "Highly productive eastern Caribbean reefs: synergistic effects of biological, chemical, physical and geological factors." NOAA Symp.Ser.for Undersea Research, 3, (1) 163–187.
  • Loveland, K., Pierce, R., and Adey, Walter H. 1985. "Blue Planet".
  • Shipp, R. C., Staples, S., and Adey, Walter H. 1985. Geomorphic trends in a glaciated coastal bay - a model for the Maine coast. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press. In Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.01960768.25.1.
  • Loveland, K., Pierce, R., and Adey, Walter H. 1984. "The Sea, a Quest for our Future".
  • Adey, Walter H. 1983. "The microcosm: a new tool for reef research." Coral Reefs, 1 193–201.
  • Williams, S. and Adey, Walter H. 1983. "Thalassia testudinum Banks et Konig. Seedling success in a coral reef microcosm." Aquatic Botany, 16 181–188.
  • Adey, Walter H. 1982. "Water Purification System and Apparatus (Algal Turf Scrubber)." United States Patent, 000.
  • Adey, Walter H. 1982. "The Microcosm: a New Tool for Reef Research." Coral Reefs, 1, (3) 193–201.
  • Adey, Walter H., Townsend, R., and Boykins, W. 1982. The Crustose Coralline Algae Rhodophyta: (Corallinaceae) of the Hawaiian Islands. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press. In Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.01960768.15.1.
  • Brawley, Susan H. and Adey, Walter H. 1982. "Coralliophila abbreviata: A significant corallivore!." Bulletin of Marine Science, 32 595.
  • Norris, James N., Griffith, Peter C., and Adey, Walter H. 1982. "Computer assisted measurement of coral reef community metabolism: watching a rapidly changing biological environment." In Computers in Research at the Smithsonian. 22.
  • Townsend, R., Boykins, W., Borowitzka, M., and Adey, Walter H. 1982. "Non-articulate coralline algae of the Pacific region." Bull Austr.J.Marine Science, 75 23.
  • Brawley, Susan H. and Adey, Walter H. 1981. "The effect of micrograzers on algal community structure in a coral reef microcosm." Marine Biology, 61 167.
  • Brawley, Susan H. and Adey, Walter H. 1981. "Micrograzers may affect macroalgal density." Nature, 292 177.
  • Loveland, K., Pierce, R., and Adey, Walter H. 1980. Coral Reefs: their passage through space and time. Smithsonian Institution.
  • Adey, Walter H. 1979. "Crustose coralline algae as microenvironmental indicators for the Tertiary." In Historical Biogeography, Plate Tectonics and the Changing Environment. Boucot, A. and Gray, J., editors. 500.
  • Adey, Walter H., Rogers, C. S., and Steneck, Robert S. 1979. "[Integrated progess report]." In The South St. Croix Reef: A Study of Reef Metabolism as Related to Environmental Factors and an Assessment of Environmental Management. 95. Charlotte Amalie, Virgin Islands: Marine Systems Laboratory.
  • Brawley, Susan H. and Adey, Walter H. 1979. "Nutrient cycling in a coral reef microcosm." 18th Northeast Algal Symposium, 000.
  • Adey, Walter H. 1978. "Algal ridges of the Caribbean Sea and West Indies." Phycologia, 17 361–367.
  • Adey, Walter H. 1978. "Coral reef morphogenesis: a multidimensional model." Science, 202 831–837.
  • Adey, Walter H. 1977. "Shallow water Holocene bioherms of the Caribbean Sea and West Indies." In Plenary paper for: 3rd Int.Coral Reef Sym., Miami, FL. 2.
  • Adey, Walter H., Adey, P., Burke, R., and Kaufman, L. 1977. "Holocene reef systems of Eastern Martinique." Atoll Research Bulletin, 218 1–40. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00775630.218.1.
  • Adey, Walter H. and Burke, R. 1977. "Holocene bioherms of the Lesser Antilles, geological control of development." Mem.Am.Ass.Petr.Geol., Studies in Geol., 4 67–81.
  • Adey, Walter H., Gladfelter, W., Ogden, J., and Dill, R. 1977. "Field guidebok to the reefs and reef communities of St. Croix, Virgin Islands." In In: 3rd Int.Sym of Coral Reefs, Miami Beach. 1–52.
  • Adey, Walter H., Macintyre, Ian G., and Stuckenrath, Robert, Jr. 1977. "Relict barrier reef systems off St. Croix: its implications with respect to late Cenozoic reef development in the Western Atlantic." In In: 3rd Int.Sym. on Coral Reefs Vol. 2, Miami Beach. 15–20.
  • Adey, Walter H. and Steneck, Robert S. 1977. "A multidimensional approach to benthic marine phytogeography." 9th International Seaweed Symposium, 000.
  • Brawley, Susan H. and Adey, Walter H. 1977. "Territorial behavior of threespot damsel fish (E.planifrons) increasess reef algal biomass and productivity." Environmental Biology of Fishes, 2, (1) 45–51.
  • Connor, Judith and Adey, Walter H. 1977. "The benthic algal composition, standing crop and productivity of a Caribbean algal ridge." Atoll Research Bulletin, 211 1–15. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00775630.211.1.
  • Adey, Walter H. and Burke, R. 1976. "Holocene bioherms (algal ridges and bank barrier reefs) of the Eastern Caribbean." Geological Society of America Bulletin, 87 95–109.
  • Adey, Walter H., Masaki, T., and Akioka, H. 1976. "The distribution of crustose corallines in Eastern Hokkaido and the biogeographic relationships of the flora." Memoirs Hokkaido University Faculty of Fisheries, 26 303–313.
  • Steneck, Robert S. and Adey, Walter H. 1976. "The role of environment in control of morphology in Lithophyllum congestum, a Caribbean algal ridge builder." Botanica Marina, 19 197–215.
  • Adey, Walter H. 1975. "The algal ridges and coral reefs of St. Croix: their structure and Holocene development." Atoll Research Bulletin, 187 1–67. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00775630.187.1.
  • Adey, Walter H. and Vassar, J. M. 1975. "Colonization, succession and growth rates of Caribbean crustose corallines." Phycologia, 14 55–69.
  • Adey, Walter H., Masaki, T., and Akioka, H. 1974. "Ezo epiyessoense, a new parasitic genus and species of Corallinaceae." Phycologia, 13 329–344.
  • Adey, Walter H. 1973. "Temperature control of reproduction and productivity in a Subarctic coralline alga." Phycologia, 12 111–118.
  • Adey, Walter H. and Adey, P. 1973. "Studies on the biosystematics and ecology of the epilithic crustose corallinaceae of the British Isles." British Phycology Journal, 8 1–60.
  • Adey, Walter H. and Macintyre, Ian G. 1973. "Crustose coralline algae: a reevaluation in the geological sciences." Geological Society of America Bulletin, 84 883–904.
  • Adey, Walter H. and Johansen, H. W. 1972. "Morphology and taxonomy of Corallinaceae with special reference to Clathromorphum, Mesophyllum and Neopolyporolithon gen. nov." Phycologia, 11 159–180.
  • Adey, Walter H. 1971. Investigations on the crustose corallines of the Northeastern North Atlantic. National Geographic Society.
  • Adey, Walter H. 1971. "Investigations on the crustose corallines of the Northeastern North Atlantic." In National Geographic Society Research Report 1965. 1–9.
  • Adey, Walter H. 1971. "The sublittoral distribution of crustose corallines on the Norwegian Coast." Sarsia, 46 41–58.
  • Adey, Walter H. and Sperapani, C. 1971. "The biology of Kvaleya epilaeve, a new parasitic genus and species of Corallinaceae." Phycologia, 10 29–42.
  • Adey, Walter H. 1970. "Some Relationships between Crustose Corallines and their Substrate." Islandica, 2 21–25.
  • Adey, Walter H. 1970. "A revision of the Foslie Crustose Coralline Herbarium, including a preliminary world phytogeographic survey." Det Kongelige Norske Videnskabers Selskabs skriftserie, 1970, (1) 1–46.
  • Adey, Walter H. 1970. "The effects of light and temperature on growth rates in Boreal-Subarctic crustose corallines." Journal of Phycology, 6 225–229.
  • Adey, Walter H. 1970. "The crustose corallines of the Northwestern North Atlantic, including Lithothamnium lemoinii n. sp." Journal of Phycology, 6 225–229.
  • Adey, Walter H. and McKibbin, D. 1970. "Studies of the maerl species Phymatolithon calcareum (Pallas) nov. comb. and Lithothamnium coralloides Crouan in the Ria de Vigo." Botanica Marina, 8 100–106.
  • Adey, Walter H. and Sperapani, C. P. 1970. "The Biology of Kvaleya epilaeve, A New Parasitic Genus and Species of Corallinaceae." Phycologia, 10 29–42.
  • Adey, Walter H. 1968. "The distribution of crustose corallines on the Icelandic coast." Scientia Islandica, 1 16–25.
  • Adey, Walter H. and Lebednik, P. 1967. "Catolog of the Foslie Herbarium." D.Kgl.Norske.Vid.Selsk.Museet.Trondheim, 000.
  • Adey, Walter H. 1966. "The distribution of saxicolous crustose corallines in the Northwestern North Atlantic." Journal of Phycology, 2, (2) 49–54.
  • Adey, Walter H. 1966. "The genera Lithothamnium, Leptophytum (nov.gen) and Phymatolithon in the gulf of Maine." Hydrobiologia, 28, (3-4) 321–368.
  • Adey, Walter H. 1966. "The Lithophylleae." In Studies of Lithophyllum and related algal genera.. Johnson, J. H. and Adey, Walter H., editors. 71–102. In Quart.Colo.School of Mines.
  • Adey, Walter H. 1966. "The genus Pseudolithophyllum in the Gulf of Maine." Hydrobiologia, 27, (304) 479–597.
  • Adey, Walter H. 1965. "The genus Clathromorphum in the Gulf of Maine." Hydrobiologia, 26, (3-4) 539–573.
  • Adey, Walter H. 1964. "The genus Phymatolithon in the Gulf of Maine." Hydrobiologia, 24, (1-3) 377–420.
  • Adey, Walter H. 1964. Investigations on the crustose corallines of the North Atlantic Ocean. National Geographic Society.

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