Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History

Ted Schultz

Research Entomologist and Curator of Hymenoptera
Department / Division
Education
  • B.A., University of California, Berkeley
  • Ph.D., Cornell University
Research Interests
Evolution and systematics of ants, especially the fungus-farming ants (tribe Attini, subfamily Myrmicinae); historical ecology and evolution of the fungus-farming behavior; theory and method of phylogenetic analysis; quantitative methods for assessing ant biodiversity
Publications
Article
  • Jesovnik, Ana and Schultz, Ted R. 2017. "Corrigenda: Ješovnik A, Schultz TR (2017) Revision of the fungus-farming ant genus Sericomyrmex Mayr (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae)." ZooKeys 691:201–204. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.691.15088
  • Ješovnik, Ana, Sosa-Calvo, Jeffrey, Lloyd, Michael W., Branstetter, Michael G., Fernández, Fernando, and Schultz, Ted R. 2017. "Phylogenomic species delimitation and host-symbiont coevolution in the fungus-farming ant genus Sericomyrmex Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): ultraconserved elements (UCEs) resolve a recent radiation." Systematic Entomology 42 (3):523–542. https://doi.org/10.1111/syen.12228
  • Mueller, Ulrich G., Ishak, Heather D., Bruschi, Sofia M., Smith, Chad C., Herman, Jacob J., Solomon, Scott E., Mikheyev, Alexander S., Rabeling, Christian, Scott, Jarrod J., Cooper, Michael, Rodrigues, Andre, Ortiz, Adriana, Brandão, Carlos R. F., Lattke, John E., Pagnocca, Fernando C., Rehner, Stephen A., Schultz, Ted R., Vasconcelos, Heraldo L., Adams, Rachelle M. M., Bollazzi, Martin, Clark, Rebecca M., Himler, Anna G., LaPolla, John S., Leal, Inara R., Johnson, Robert A. et al. 2017. "Biogeography of mutualistic fungi cultivated by leafcutter ants." Molecular Ecology 26 (24):6921–6937. https://doi.org/10.1111/mec.14431
  • Sosa-Calvo, J., Ješovnik, A., Lopes, C. T., Rodrigues, A., Rabeling, C., Bacci, M., Vasconcelos, H. L., and Schultz, Ted R. 2017. "Biology of the relict fungus-farming ant Apterostigma megacephala Lattke, including descriptions of the male, gyne, and larva." Insectes Sociaux 64 (3):329–346. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00040-017-0550-2
  • Sosa-Calvo, Jeffrey, Ješovnik, Ana, Vasconcelos, Heraldo L., Bacci, Mauricio, and Schultz, Ted R. 2017. "Rediscovery of the enigmatic fungus-farming ant "Mycetosoritis" asper Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): Implications for taxonomy, phylogeny, and the evolution of agriculture in ants." PloS One 12 (5):https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0176498
  • Jaitrong, Weeyawat and Schultz, Ted R. 2016. "Aenictus shilintongae sp. nov. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Dorylinae), an army ant of the Aenictus laeviceps species group from China." The Thailand Natural History Museum Journal 10 (2):67–74.
  • Ješovnik, Ana, González, Vanessa L., and Schultz, Ted R. 2016. "Phylogenomics and Divergence Dating of Fungus-Farming Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the Genera Sericomyrmex and Apterostigma." PloS One 11 (7):https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0151059
  • Nygaard, Sanne, Hu, Haofu, Li, Cai, Schiott, Morten, Chen, Zhensheng, Yang, Zhikai, Xie, Qiaolin, Ma, Chunyu, Deng, Yuan, Dikow, Rebecca B., Rabeling, Christian, Nash, David R., Wcislo, William T., Brady, Seán Gary, Schultz, Ted R., Zhang, Guojie, and Boomsma, Jacobus J. 2016. "Reciprocal genomic evolution in the ant-fungus agricultural symbiosis." Nature Communications 7:e12233. https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms12233
  • Ward, P. S., Brady, Seán G., Fisher, B. L., and Schultz, Ted R. 2016. "Phylogenetic classifications are informative, stable, and pragmatic: the case for monophyletic taxa." Insectes Sociaux 63 (4):489–492. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00040-016-0516-9
  • Blaimer, Bonnie B., Brady, Seán Gary, Schultz, Ted R., and Fisher, Brian L. 2015. "Functional and phylogenetic approaches reveal the evolution of diversity in a hyper diverse biota." Ecography 38 (9):901–912. https://doi.org/10.1111/ecog.01370
  • Blaimer, Bonnie B., Brady, Seán Gary, Schultz, Ted R., Lloyd, Michael W., Fisher, Brian L., and Ward, Philip S. 2015. "Phylogenomic methods outperform traditional multi-locus approaches in resolving deep evolutionary history: a case study of formicine ants." BMC Evolutionary Biology 15 (1):271. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12862-015-0552-5
  • Fernandes, Itanna O., Souza, Jorge L. P., C., Fernando Fernández, Delabie, Jacques H. C., and Schultz, Ted R. 2015. "A new species of Simopelta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Ponerinae) from Brazil and Costa Rica." Zootaxa 3956 (2):295–300. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3956.2.10
  • Rabeling, C., Schultz, Ted R., Bacci, M., Jr., and Bollazzi, M. 2015. "Acromyrmex charruanus: a new inquiline social parasite species of leaf-cutting ants." Insectes Sociaux 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00040-015-0406-6
  • Schultz, Ted R., Sosa-Calvo, Jeffrey, Brady, Seán Gary, Lopes, Cauê T., Mueller, Ulrich G., Bacci, Mauricio, and Vasconcelos, Heraldo L. 2015. "The Most Relictual Fungus-Farming Ant Species Cultivates the Most Recently Evolved and Highly Domesticated Fungal Symbiont Species." American Naturalist 185 (5):693–703. https://doi.org/10.1086/680501
  • Sosa-Calvo, Jeffrey, Jesovnik, Ana, Okonski, Eugenia, and Schultz, Ted R. 2015. "Locating, collecting, and maintaining colonies of fungus-farming ants (Hymenoptera: Myrmicinae: Attini)." Sociobiology 62 (2):https://doi.org/10.13102/sociobiology.v62i2.300-320
  • Ward, Philip S., Brady, Seán Gary, Fisher, Brian L., and Schultz, Ted R. 2015. "The evolution of myrmicine ants: Phylogeny and biogeography of a hyperdiverse ant clade." Systematic Entomology 40 (1):61–81. https://doi.org/10.1111/syen.12090
  • Wilkerson, Richard C., Linton, Yvonne-Marie, Fonseca, Dina M., Schultz, Ted R., Price, Dana C., and Strickman, Daniel A. 2015. "Making Mosquito Taxonomy Useful: A Stable Classification of Tribe Aedini that Balances Utility with Current Knowledge of Evolutionary Relationships." PloS One 10 (7):https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0133602
  • Brady, Seán Gary, Fisher, Brian L., Schultz, Ted R., and Ward, Philip S. 2014. "The rise of army ants and their relatives: diversification of specialized predatory doryline ants." BMC Evolutionary Biology 14 (1):https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2148-14-93
  • Masiulionis, Virginia E., Rabeling, Christian, De Fine Licht, Henrik H., Schultz, Ted R., Bacci, Maurício, Bezerra, Cintia M. Santos, and Pagnocca, Fernando C. 2014. "A Brazilian Population of the Asexual Fungus-Growing Ant Mycocepurus smithii (Formicidae, Myrmicinae, Attini) Cultivates Fungal Symbionts with Gongylidia-Like Structures." PLoS ONE 9 (8):1–8. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103800
  • Rabeling, Christian, Schultz, Ted R., Pierce, Naomi E, and Bacci Jr., Maurício. 2014. "A Social Parasite Evolved Reproductive Isolation from Its Fungus-Growing Ant Host in Sympatry." Current Biology 24 (17):2047–2052. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2014.07.048
  • Jesovnik, A., Sosa-Calvo, J., Lopes, C. T., Vasconcelos, H. L., and Schultz, Ted R. 2013. "Nest architecture, fungus gardens, queen, males and larvae of the fungus-growing ant Mycetagroicus inflatus Brandão & Mayhé-Nunes." Insectes Sociaux 60 (4):531–542. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00040-013-0320-8
  • Sosa-Calvo, Jeffrey, Schultz, Ted R., Brandao, Carlos R. F., Klingenberg, Christiana, Feitosa, Rodrigo M., Rabeling, Christian, Bacci, Mauricio, Jr., Lopes, Caue T., and Vasconcelos, Heraldo L. 2013. "Cyatta abscondita: Taxonomy, Evolution, and Natural History of a New Fungus-Farming Ant Genus from Brazil." Plos One 8 (11):e80498–e80498. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080498
  • Adams, Rachelle M. M., Jones, Tappey H., Jeter, Andrew W., De, Fine Licht, Schultz, Ted R., and Nash, David R. 2012. "A comparative study of exocrine gland chemistry in Trachymyrmex and Sericomyrmex fungus-growing ants." Biochemical systematics and ecology 40:91–97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bse.2011.10.011
  • Jones, Tappey H., Adams, Rachelle M. M., Spande, Thomas F., Garraffo, H. Martin, Kaneko, Tetsuo, and Schultz, Ted R. 2012. "Histrionicotoxin Alkaloids Finally Detected in an Ant." Journal of natural products 75 (11):1930–1936. https://doi.org/10.1021/np300485v
  • Mehdiabadi, Natasha J., Mueller, Ulrich G., Brady, Seán Gary, Himler, Anna G., and Schultz, Ted R. 2012. "Symbiont fidelity and the origin of species in fungus-growing ants." Nature Communications 3:https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms1844
  • Rey, Olivier, Estoup, Arnaud, Vonshak, Merav, Loiseau, Anne, Blanchet, Simon, Calcaterra, Luis, Chifflet, Lucila, Rossi, Jean-Pierre, Kergoat, Gaël J., Foucaud, Julien, Orivel, Jé, Leponce, Maurice, Schultz, Ted R., and Facon, Benoit. 2012. "Where do adaptive shifts occur during invasion? A multidisciplinary approach to unravelling cold adaptation in a tropical ant species invading the Mediterranean area." Ecology Letters 15 (11):1266–1275. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2012.01849.x
  • Rabeling, Christian, Gonzales, Omar, Schultz, Ted R., Bacci, Maurício, Garcia, Marcos V. B., Verhaagh, Manfred, Ishak, Heather D., and Mueller, Ulrich Gerhard. 2011. "Cryptic sexual populations account for genetic diversity and ecological success in a widely distributed, asexual fungus-growing ant." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 108 (30):12366–12371. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1105467108
  • Solomon, Scott E., Lopes, Caue T., Mueller, Ulrich G., Rodrigues, Andre, Sosa-Calvo, Jeffrey, Schultz, Ted R., and Vasconcelos, Heraldo L. 2011. "Nesting biology and fungiculture of the fungus-growing ant, Mycetagroicus cerradensis: New light on the origin of higher-attine agriculture." Journal of Insect Science 11 (12):1–14. https://doi.org/10.1673/031.011.0112
  • Mehdiabadi, Natasha J. and Schultz, Ted R. 2010. "Natural history and phylogeny of the fungus-farming ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae: Attini)." Myrmecological News 13:37–55.
  • Sosa-Calvo, J. and Schultz, Ted R. 2010. "Three Remarkable New Fungus-Growing Ant Species of the Genus Myrmicocrypta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), With a Reassessment of the Characters That Define the Genus and Its Position Within the Attini." Annals of the Entomological Society of America 103 (2):181–195. https://doi.org/10.1603/AN09108
  • Ward, Philip S., Brady, Seán Gary, Fisher, Brian L., and Schultz, Ted R. 2010. "Phylogeny and Biogeography of Dolichoderine Ants: Effects of Data Partitioning and Relict Taxa on Historical Inference." Systematic Biology 59 (3):342–362. https://doi.org/10.1093/sysbio/syq012
  • Sosa-Calvo, Jeffrey, Brady, Seán Gary, and Schultz, Ted R. 2009. "The Gyne of the Enigmatic Fungus-Farming Ant Species Mycetosoritis explicata." Journal of Hymenoptera Research 18 (1):113–120.
  • Schultz, Ted R. and Brady, Seán Gary. 2008. "Major evolutionary transitions in ant agriculture." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105 (14):5435–5440. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0711024105
  • Taerum, Stephen J., Cafaro, Matias J., Little, Ainslie E. F., Schultz, Ted R., and Currie, Cameron Robert. 2007. "Low host-pathogen specificity in the leaf-cutting ant-microbe symbiosis." Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 274 (1621):1971–1978. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2007.0431
  • Brady, Seán Gary, Schultz, Ted R., Fisher, Brian L., and Ward, Philip S. 2006. "Evaluating alternative hypotheses for the early evolution and diversification of ants." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103 (48):18172–18177. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0605858103
  • Sosa-Calvo, J., Shatuuck, S. O., and Schultz, Ted R. 2006. "Dacetine ants of Panama: new records and description of a new species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae: Dacetini)." Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 108 (4):814–821.
  • Schultz, Ted R. 2005. "The fungus-growing ant genus Apterostigma in Dominican amber." Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 77:443–454.
  • Ward, P. S., Brady, Seán Gary, Fisher, B. L., and Schultz, Ted R. 2005. "Assembling the ant "Tree of Life"." Myrmecologische Nachrichten 7:87–90.
  • Solomon, S. E., Mueller, Ulrich Gerhard, Schultz, Ted R., Currie, Cameron Robert, Price, Shauna L., Oliveira da Silva-Pinhati, A. C., Bacci, M., and Vasconcelos, Heraldo L. 2004. "Nesting Biology of the Fungus Growing Ants Mycetarotes Emery (Attini, Formicidae)." Insectes Sociaux 51 (4):333–338.
  • Villelsen, Palle, Mueller, Ulrich Gerhard, Schultz, Ted R., Adams, Rachelle M. M., and Bouck, Amy C. 2004. "Evolution of Ant-Cultivar Specialization and Cultivar Switching in Apterostigma Fungus-Growing Ants." Evolution 58 (10):2252-2265.
  • Currie, Cameron Robert, Wong, Bess, Stuart, Alison E., Schultz, Ted R., Rehner, Stephen A., Mueller, Ulrich Gerhard, Sung, Gi-Ho, Spatafora, Joseph W., and Straus, Neil A. 2003. "Ancient Tripartite Coevolution in the Attine Ant-Microbe Symbiosis." Science (5605): 386–388.
  • Schultz, Ted R. 2003. "Hyperdiversity Up Close [Review of "Pheidole in the New World" by E.O.Wilson]." Science 300 (5616):57–58.
  • Sallum, M. A. M., Schultz, Ted R., Foster, P. G., Aronstein, K., Wirtz, R. A., and Wilkerson, Richard C. 2002. "Phylogeny of Anophelinae (Diptera Culicidae) Based on Nuclear Ribosomal and Mitochondrial DNA Sequences." Sytematic Biology 27:361–382.
  • Schultz, Ted R., Solomon, S. E., Mueller, Ulrich Gerhard, Villelsen, Palle, Boomsma, Jacobus J. Koos, Adams, Rachelle M. M., and Norden, B. 2002. "Cryptic Speciation in the Fungus-Growing Ants Cyphomyrmex longiscapus Weber and Cyphomyrmex muelleri Schultz and Solomon, New Species (Formicidae, Attini)." Insectes Sociaux 49 (4):331–343.
  • Villesen, P., Murakami, T., Schultz, Ted R., and Boomsma, Jacobus J. Koos. 2002. "Identifying the Transition Between Single and Multiple Mating of Queens in Fungus-Growing Ants." Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 269:1541–1548.
  • Villesen, Palle, Schultz, Ted R., and Boomsma, Jacobus J. Koos. 2002. "Identifying the Transition Between Single and Multiple Mating in Attine Ants." Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (1500): 1541–1548. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2002.2044
  • Artiss, T., Schultz, Ted R., Polhemus, Dan A., and Simon, C. 2001. "Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis of the Odonate Genera Libellula, Ladona, and Plathemis (Odonata: Lielluidae) based on Mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase 1 and 16S RNA Sequence Data." Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 18 (3):348–361.
  • Schultz, Ted R., Engel, M. S., and Ascher, J. S. 2001. "Evidence for the Origin of Eusociality in the Corbiculate Bees (Hymoptera: Apidae)." Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 74:10–16.
  • Adams, Rachelle M. M., Mueller, Ulrich Gerhard, Schultz, Ted R., and Norden, B. 2000. "Agro-Predation: Usurpation of Attine Fungus Gardens by Megalomyrmex Ants." Naturwissenschaften 87:549–554.
  • Sallum, M. A. M., Schultz, Ted R., and Wilkerson, Richard C. 2000. "Phlyolgeny of Anophelinae (DIptera: Culicidae) based on morphological characters." Annals of the Entomological Society of America 93:747–775.
  • Schultz, Ted R. 2000. "In Search of Ant Ancestors, Invited "Commentary"." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 26:14028–14029.
  • Schultz, Ted R. 1999. "Ants, Plants, and Antibiotics. Invited "News and Views."." Nature 398:747–748.
  • Schultz, Ted R. and Churchill, G. A. 1999. "The Role of Subjectivity in Reconstructing Ancestral Character States: A Bayesian Approach to Unknown Rates, States, and Transformation Assymmetries." Systematic Biology 48 (3):651–664.
  • Mueller, Ulrich Gerhard, Rehner, Stephen A., and Schultz, Ted R. 1998. "The Evolution of Agriculture in Ants." Science 281 (5385):2034–2038.
  • Schultz, Ted R., Bekkevold, D., and Boomsma, Jacobus J. Koos. 1998. "Acromyrmex insinuator new species: An Incipient Social Parasite of Fungus-Growing Ants." Insectes Sociaux 45:457–471.
  • Wetterer, J. K., Schultz, Ted R., and Meier, Rudolf. 1998. "Phylogeny of Fungus-Growing Ants (Tribe Attini) Base on mtDNA Sequence and Morphology." Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 9 (1):42–47.
  • Engel, M. S. and Schultz, Ted R. 1997. "Phylogeny and Behavior in Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae)." Annals of the Entomological Society of America 90 (1):43–53.
  • Meier, Rudolf and Schultz, Ted R. 1996. "Pilzzucht und Blattschneiden bei Ameisen: Präadaptationen und evolutive Trends [Fungus growing and leaf cutting in ants -- preadaptations and evolutionary trends]." Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin 35:57–76.
  • Schultz, Ted R., Cocroft, R. B., and Churchill, G. A. 1996. "The Reconstruction of Ancestral Character States." Evolution 50 (2):504–511.
  • Schultz, Ted R. and Meier, Rudolf. 1995. "A phylogenetic analysis of the fungus-growing ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Attini) based on morphological characters of the larvae." Systematic Entomology 20:337–370.
  • Chapela, I. H., Rehner, Stephen A., Schultz, Ted R., and Mueller, Ulrich Gerhard. 1994. "Evolutionary History of the Symbiosis Between Fungus-Growing Ants and Their Fungi." Science 266:1691–1694.
  • Hinkle, G., Wetterer, J. K., Schultz, Ted R., and Sogin, M. L. 1994. "Phylogeny of the Attine Ant Fungi Based on Analysis of Small Subunit Ribosomal RNA Gene Sequences." Science 266:1695–1697.
  • Meier, Rudolf and Schultz, Ted R. 1994. "The fungus-growing ants are monophyletic: A cladistic analysis of the Attini (Formicidae) based on a comparative SEM study of larvae." Verhandlungen der Deutschen Zoologischen Gesellschaft 87:230.
  • Schultz, Ted R. 1994. [Book review] "Identification Guide to the Ant Genera of the World, by Bolton, B., Harvard University Press." Psyche. 101 (3-4):203–208.
  • Schultz, Ted R. and Meier, Rudolf. 1994. "The Phylogeny of the Fungus-Growing Ants (Myrmicinae: Attini) and their Fungi." In, Les Insectes Sociaux: 12th Congress of the International Union for the Study of Social Insects, Paris, Sorbonne, 21-127 August (A.Lenior, G.Arno 177.
  • Schultz, Ted R. 1993. "Stalking the Wild Attine." Notes from Underground (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University) [Article] 8:7–10.

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Chapter
  • Schultz, Ted R., Mueller, Ulrich Gerhard, Currie, Cameron Robert, and Rehner, Stephen A. 2005. "Reciprocal illumination: A comparison of agriculture in humans and ants." in Ecological and Evolutionary Advances in Insect-Fungal Associations, edited by Fernando, Vega and Meredith, Blackwell., 149–190. Oxford University Press.
  • Bang, R., Schultz, Ted R., and DeSalle, R. 2002. "Development, Homology, and Systematics." in Molecular Systematics and Evolution: Theory and Practice, 175–188.
  • Schultz, Ted R., Root, R. B., and Eisner, T. 2001. "William L. Brown, Jr.: June 1, 1922 - March 30, 1997 [Obituary]." in Memorial Statements, Cornell University Faculty 1996-97, 12–16. Ithaca, New York: Office of the Dean of the Faculty, Cornell University.
  • Agosti, Donat, Majer, J., and Schultz, Ted R. 2000. "The Biodiversity Challenge (Preface)." in Ants: Standard Methods for Measuring and Monitoring Biodiversity, xvii–xxix.
  • Schultz, Ted R. and Alonso, L. E. 2000. "Glossary." in Ants: Standard Methods for Measuring and Monitoring Biodiversity, 223–229.
  • Schultz, Ted R. and McGlynn, T. P. 2000. "The Interactions of Ants with Other Organisms." in Ants: Standard Methods for Measuring and Monitoring Biodiversity, 35–44.
  • Schultz, Ted R., Engel, M. S., and Prentice, M. A. 1999. "Resolving Conflict Between Morphological and Molecular Evidence for the Origin of Eusociality in the "Corbiculate" Bees (Hymoptera: Apidae): A Hypothesis-Testing Approach." in Entomological Contributions in the Memory of Byron A. Alexander, 125–138.
  • Schultz, Ted R. 1998. "Phylogeny of the Fungus-Growing Ants (Myrmicinae: Attini): Evidence from DNA Sequences (Nuclear Elongation Factor-1 Alpha and Mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I) and Morphology. [Abstract]." in Social Insects at the Turn of the Millenium: Proceedings of the XIII International Congress of IUSSI, Adelaide, Australia, 29 December 1998-3 January 1999, 429.
Book
  • Hoyt, Erich and Schultz, Ted R. 2002. Insect Lives: Stories of Mystery and Romance From a Hidden World. Harvard University Press.
  • Agosti, Donat, Majer, J., Alonso, L., and Schultz, Ted R. 2000. Ants: Standard Methods for Measuring and Monitoring Biodiversity. Smithsonian Institution Press.