Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History

Stephen Cairns

Research Zoologist, Emeritus, Curator of calcified Hydrozoa, Scleractinia, and Octocorallia
Department / Division
Education
  • Louisiana State University in New Orleans (UNO), B.S., 1971.
  • University of Miami (RSMAS) (Biological Oceanography), M.S., 1973.
  • University of Miami (RSMAS) (Biological Oceanography), PhD., 1976.
     
  • Louisiana State University in New Orleans (UNO), B.S., 1971.
  • University of Miami (RSMAS) (Biological Oceanography), M.S., 1973.
  • University of Miami (RSMAS) (Biological Oceanography), PhD., 1976.
     
Affiliations

Past-president, current Secretary and Invertebrate editor of the Biological Society of Washington and Associate editor of the Atoll Research Bulletin. Tree of Life web project, Scleractinia, Octocoral Research Center.

Past-president, current Secretary and Invertebrate editor of the Biological Society of Washington and Associate editor of the Atoll Research Bulletin. Tree of Life web project, Scleractinia, Octocoral Research Center.

Research Interests

Taxonomy, zoogeography, functional morphology, mineralogy, and evolution of the Stylasteridae, and deep-water Scleractinia and Octocorallia.

Taxonomy, zoogeography, functional morphology, mineralogy, and evolution of the Stylasteridae, and deep-water Scleractinia and Octocorallia.

Publications
Article

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Web Page
  • 2018. "WORMS World Register of Marine Species."
  • Cairns, Stephen D. 2017. "Deep-Sea Coral Taxa in the U.S. Caribbean Region: Depth and Geographical Distribution."
  • Cairns, Stephen D. and Hourigan, T. F. 2017. "A Comprehensive List of Known Deep-Sea Corals Occurring in the EEZ of the United States and its Possessions."
  • Etnoyer, P. J. and Cairns, Stephen D. 2017. "Deep-Sea Coral Taxa in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico: Depth and Geographical Distribution." https://repository.si.edu/handle/10088/34996.
  • Hourigan, T. F., Cairns, Stephen D., Reed, J., and Ross, S. W. 2017. "Deep-Sea Coral Taxa in the U.S. Southeast Region: Depth and Geographical Distribution." https://repository.si.edu/handle/10088/34999.
  • Packer, D. B., Nizinski, M. S., Cairns, Stephen D., and Hourigan, T. F. 2017. "Deep-Sea Coral Taxa in the U.S. Northeast Region: Depth and Geographical Distribution." https://repository.si.edu/handle/10088/34997.
  • Parrish, F. A., Baco-Taylor, A., Kelley, C., Cairns, Stephen D., and Hourigan, T. F. 2017. "Deep-Sea Coral Taxa in the Hawaiian Archipelago and other U.S. Pacific Islands: Depth and Geographical Distribution." https://repository.si.edu/handle/10088/34998.
  • Stone, R. P. and Cairns, Stephen D. 2017. "Deep-Sea Coral Taxa in the Alaska Region: Depth and Geographical Distribution." https://repository.si.edu/handle/10088/34994.
  • Whitmire, C. E., Clarke, M. E., Yoklavich, M. M., Everett, M. V., Hourigan, T. F., and Cairns, Stephen D. 2017. "Deep-Sea Coral Taxa in the U.S. West Coast Region: Depth and Geographical Distribution." https://repository.si.edu/handle/10088/35000.
Book

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Chapter
  • Cairns, Stephen D., Stone, R. P., Berntson, E. A., and Pomponi, S. A. 2017. "Species Discovery of Deep-Water Corals and Sponges in U.S. Waters." in The State of Deep-Sea Coral and Sponge Ecosystems of the United States. NOAA Technical Memorandum NFS-OHC-4, edited by Hourigan, T. F., Etnoyer, P. J., and Cairns, Stephen D., 39–57. Silver Spring: NOAA.
  • Cairns, Stephen D., Stone, R. P., Berntson, E. A., and Pomponi, S. A. 2017. "Species Discovery of Deep-Water Corals and Sponges in U.S. Waters." in The State of Deep-Sea Coral and Sponge Ecosystems of the United States. NOAA Technical Memorandum NFS-OHC-4, edited by Hourigan, T. F., Etnoyer, P. J., and Cairns, Stephen D., 39–57. Silver Spring: NOAA.
  • Hourigan, Thomas F., Etnoyer, Peter J., and Cairns, Stephen D. 2017. "Introduction to the State of Deep-Sea Coral and Sponge Ecosystems of the United States." in The State of Deep-Sea Coral and Sponge Ecosystems of the United States, edited by Hourigan, Thomas F., Etnoyer, Peter J., and Cairns, Stephen D., 1–38. NOAA Technical Memorandum NFS-OHC-4. Silver Spring: NOAA.
  • Hourigan, Thomas F., Etnoyer, Peter J., and Cairns, Stephen D. 2017. "Introduction to the State of Deep-Sea Coral and Sponge Ecosystems of the United States." in The State of Deep-Sea Coral and Sponge Ecosystems of the United States, edited by Hourigan, Thomas F., Etnoyer, Peter J., and Cairns, Stephen D., 1–38. NOAA Technical Memorandum NFS-OHC-4. Silver Spring: NOAA.
  • Morrison, Cheryl L., Baco, Amy R., Nizinski, Martha S., Coykendall, D. K., Demopoulos, A. W. J., Cho, W., and Shank, T. M. 2017. "Population Connectivity of Deep‐Sea Corals." in The State of Deep-Sea Coral and Sponge Ecosystems of the United States, edited by Hourigan, T. F., Etnoyer, P. J., and Cairns, Stephen D., 379–407.
  • Packer, David B., Nizinski, Martha S., Bachman, Michelle S., Drohan, Amy F., Poti, Matthew, and Kinlan, Brian P. 2017. "Chapter 9. State of Deep-Sea Coral and Sponge Ecosystems of the U.S. Northeast Region." in The State of Deep-Sea Coral and Sponge Ecosystems of the United States, edited by Hourigan, T. F., Etnoyer, P. J., and Cairns, Stephen D., 237–297. States. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS‐OHC‐4.
  • Pérez, Carlos Daniel, Neves, Bárbara, Cordeiro, Ralf T. S., Williams, Gary C., and Cairns, Stephen D. 2016. "Diversity and Distribution of Octocorallia." in The Cnidaria, Past, Present and Future, edited by Goffredo, Stefano and Dubinsky, Zvy., 109–123. Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-31305-4_8
  • Bax, N. N. and Cairns, Stephen D. 2014. "Stylasteridae (Cnidaria; Hydrozoa)." in Biogeographic Atlas of the Southern Ocean, edited by DeBroyer, C.,, Koubbi, P., Griffisths, H. J., and Raymond, B., 107–112. Cambridge: SCAR.
  • Watson, J., deCook, S., and Cairns, Stephen D. 2010. "Chapter 3: Phylum Cnidaria: Class Hydrozoa." in New Zealand Coastal Marine Invertebrates, Volume 1, edited by deCook, S., 177–228. Christchurch: Canterbury University Press.
  • Cairns, Stephen D. and Bayer, Frederick M. 2009. "Chapter 13. Octocorallia (Cnidaria) of the Gulf of Mexico." in Gulf of Mexico–Origins, Waters, and Biota. Volume 1. Biodiversity., edited by Felder, Darryl L. and Camp, David K., 321–331. College Station, Texas: Texas A&M Press.
  • Cairns, Stephen D. and Fautin, D. G. 2009. "Chapter 12. Cnidaria: Introduction." in Gulf of Mexico–Origins, Waters, and Biota. Volume 1. Biodiversity., edited by Felder, Darryl L. and Camp, David K., 315–319. College Station, Texas.: Texas A&M Press.
  • Cairns, Stephen D., Gerhswin, Lisa A., Brook, Fred, Pugh, Philip R., Dawson, Elliott W., Ocaña V, Oscar, Vervoort, Will, Williams, Gary, Watson, Jeanette, Opresko, Dennis M., Schuchert, Peter, Hine, P. Michael, Gordon, Dennis P., Campbell, Hamish J., Wright, Athony J., Sanchez, Juana, and Fautin, Daphne G. 2009. "Phylum Cnidaria; Corals, Medusae, Hydroids, Myxozoa." in New Zealand Inventory of Biodiversity. Volume 1. Kingdom Animalia: Radiata, Lophotrochozoa, Deuterostomia, edited by Gordon, Dennis P., 59–101. Christchurch: Canterbury University Press.
  • Cairns, Stephen D., Jaap, W. C., and Lang, J. C. 2009. "Chapter 14. Scleractinia (Cnidaria) of the Gulf of Mexico." in Gulf of Mexico–Origins, Waters, and Biota. Volume 1. Biodiversity., edited by Felder, Darryl L. and Camp, David K., 333–346. College Station, Texas: Texas A&M Press.
  • Calder, D. R. and Cairns, Stephen D. 2009. "Chapter 19. Hydroids (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) of the Gulf of Mexico." in Gulf of Mexico–Origins, Waters, and Biota. Volume 1. Biodiversity., edited by Felder, Darryl L. and Camp, David K., 381–394. College Station, Texas: Texas A&M Press.
  • Ofwegen, L., Breedy, Odalisca, and Cairns, Stephen D. 2009. "Octocorallia - Octocorals." in Marine Benthic Fauna of Chilean Patagonia, edited by Haussermann, V. and Forsterra, G., 177–214. Santiago, Chile: Nature in Focus.
  • Cairns, Stephen D. and Chapman, R. E. 2001. "Biogeographic affinities of the North Atlantic deep-water Scleractinia." in Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Deep-Sea Corals, Ecology Action Centre and Nova Scotia Museum, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, 30–57.
  • Cairns, Stephen D., Hoeksema, B. W., and der Land, J. van. 2001. "Scleractinia." in European Register of Marine Species. A checklist of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Patrimoines naturels 50, 109–110.
  • Cairns, Stephen D. 1999. "Stratigraphic Distribution of Neogene Caribbean Azooxanthellae Corals (Scleractinia and Stylasteridae)." in A Paleobiotic Survey of Caribbean Faunas From the Neogene of the Isthmus of Panama, edited by Collins, Laurel S. and Coates, Anthony G., 109–118. Bulletins of American Paleontology. Allen Press.
  • Collins, Laurel S., Aguilera, Orangel A., Borne, Pamela F., and Cairns, Stephen D. 1999. "A Paleoenvironmental Analysis of the Neogene of Caribbean Panamá and Costa Rica Using Several Phyla." in A Paleobiotic Survey of Caribbean Faunas From the Neogene of the Isthmus of Panama, edited by Collins, Laurel S. and Coates, Anthony G., 81. Allen Press.
  • Amaral, F. D., Cairns, Stephen D., and Schlenz, E. 1998. "Scanning electron microscopy of hydrocoral skeletons from Brazil." in 22nd Brazilian Congress on Zoology, 7–8.
  • Cairns, Stephen D. 1987. "Evolutionary trends in the Stylasteridae (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa)." in Modern Trends in the Systematics, Ecology, and Evolution of Hydroids and Hydromedudae, edited by Bouillon, J., 257–274. Clarendon Press: Oxford.
  • Cairns, Stephen D., den Hartog, J. C., Arenson, C., and Rützler, Klaus. 1986. "Scleractinia." in Marine Fauna and Flora of Bermuda, edited by Sterrer, W., 159. John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
  • Cairns, Stephen D., den Hartog, J. C., and Arneson, C. 1986. "Anthozoa." in Marine fauna and flora of Bermuda, 159–194.
  • Cairns, Stephen D., den Hartog, J. C., and Arneson, C. 1986. "Class Anthozoa." in Marine Fauna and Flora of Bermuda, edited by Sterrer, W., 159–194. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

... more... less

Dataset
  • Packer, David B., Nizinski, Martha S., Cairns, Stephen D., and Hourigan, Thomas F. 2017. [Dataset] "Deep‐Sea Coral Taxa in the U.S. Northeast Region: Depth and Geographical Distribution." Distributed by States. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS‐OHC‐4.
  • Cairns, Stephen D. 2006. [Dataset] "Station Data to Accompany Publications of S.D. Cairns." Distributed by Smithsonian Research Online.
Article

... more... less

Web Page
  • 2018. "WORMS World Register of Marine Species."
  • Cairns, Stephen D. 2017. "Deep-Sea Coral Taxa in the U.S. Caribbean Region: Depth and Geographical Distribution."
  • Cairns, Stephen D. and Hourigan, T. F. 2017. "A Comprehensive List of Known Deep-Sea Corals Occurring in the EEZ of the United States and its Possessions."
  • Etnoyer, P. J. and Cairns, Stephen D. 2017. "Deep-Sea Coral Taxa in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico: Depth and Geographical Distribution." https://repository.si.edu/handle/10088/34996.
  • Hourigan, T. F., Cairns, Stephen D., Reed, J., and Ross, S. W. 2017. "Deep-Sea Coral Taxa in the U.S. Southeast Region: Depth and Geographical Distribution." https://repository.si.edu/handle/10088/34999.
  • Packer, D. B., Nizinski, M. S., Cairns, Stephen D., and Hourigan, T. F. 2017. "Deep-Sea Coral Taxa in the U.S. Northeast Region: Depth and Geographical Distribution." https://repository.si.edu/handle/10088/34997.
  • Parrish, F. A., Baco-Taylor, A., Kelley, C., Cairns, Stephen D., and Hourigan, T. F. 2017. "Deep-Sea Coral Taxa in the Hawaiian Archipelago and other U.S. Pacific Islands: Depth and Geographical Distribution." https://repository.si.edu/handle/10088/34998.
  • Stone, R. P. and Cairns, Stephen D. 2017. "Deep-Sea Coral Taxa in the Alaska Region: Depth and Geographical Distribution." https://repository.si.edu/handle/10088/34994.
  • Whitmire, C. E., Clarke, M. E., Yoklavich, M. M., Everett, M. V., Hourigan, T. F., and Cairns, Stephen D. 2017. "Deep-Sea Coral Taxa in the U.S. West Coast Region: Depth and Geographical Distribution." https://repository.si.edu/handle/10088/35000.
Book

... more... less

Chapter
  • Cairns, Stephen D., Stone, R. P., Berntson, E. A., and Pomponi, S. A. 2017. "Species Discovery of Deep-Water Corals and Sponges in U.S. Waters." in The State of Deep-Sea Coral and Sponge Ecosystems of the United States. NOAA Technical Memorandum NFS-OHC-4, edited by Hourigan, T. F., Etnoyer, P. J., and Cairns, Stephen D., 39–57. Silver Spring: NOAA.
  • Cairns, Stephen D., Stone, R. P., Berntson, E. A., and Pomponi, S. A. 2017. "Species Discovery of Deep-Water Corals and Sponges in U.S. Waters." in The State of Deep-Sea Coral and Sponge Ecosystems of the United States. NOAA Technical Memorandum NFS-OHC-4, edited by Hourigan, T. F., Etnoyer, P. J., and Cairns, Stephen D., 39–57. Silver Spring: NOAA.
  • Hourigan, Thomas F., Etnoyer, Peter J., and Cairns, Stephen D. 2017. "Introduction to the State of Deep-Sea Coral and Sponge Ecosystems of the United States." in The State of Deep-Sea Coral and Sponge Ecosystems of the United States, edited by Hourigan, Thomas F., Etnoyer, Peter J., and Cairns, Stephen D., 1–38. NOAA Technical Memorandum NFS-OHC-4. Silver Spring: NOAA.
  • Hourigan, Thomas F., Etnoyer, Peter J., and Cairns, Stephen D. 2017. "Introduction to the State of Deep-Sea Coral and Sponge Ecosystems of the United States." in The State of Deep-Sea Coral and Sponge Ecosystems of the United States, edited by Hourigan, Thomas F., Etnoyer, Peter J., and Cairns, Stephen D., 1–38. NOAA Technical Memorandum NFS-OHC-4. Silver Spring: NOAA.
  • Morrison, Cheryl L., Baco, Amy R., Nizinski, Martha S., Coykendall, D. K., Demopoulos, A. W. J., Cho, W., and Shank, T. M. 2017. "Population Connectivity of Deep‐Sea Corals." in The State of Deep-Sea Coral and Sponge Ecosystems of the United States, edited by Hourigan, T. F., Etnoyer, P. J., and Cairns, Stephen D., 379–407.
  • Packer, David B., Nizinski, Martha S., Bachman, Michelle S., Drohan, Amy F., Poti, Matthew, and Kinlan, Brian P. 2017. "Chapter 9. State of Deep-Sea Coral and Sponge Ecosystems of the U.S. Northeast Region." in The State of Deep-Sea Coral and Sponge Ecosystems of the United States, edited by Hourigan, T. F., Etnoyer, P. J., and Cairns, Stephen D., 237–297. States. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS‐OHC‐4.
  • Pérez, Carlos Daniel, Neves, Bárbara, Cordeiro, Ralf T. S., Williams, Gary C., and Cairns, Stephen D. 2016. "Diversity and Distribution of Octocorallia." in The Cnidaria, Past, Present and Future, edited by Goffredo, Stefano and Dubinsky, Zvy., 109–123. Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-31305-4_8
  • Bax, N. N. and Cairns, Stephen D. 2014. "Stylasteridae (Cnidaria; Hydrozoa)." in Biogeographic Atlas of the Southern Ocean, edited by DeBroyer, C.,, Koubbi, P., Griffisths, H. J., and Raymond, B., 107–112. Cambridge: SCAR.
  • Watson, J., deCook, S., and Cairns, Stephen D. 2010. "Chapter 3: Phylum Cnidaria: Class Hydrozoa." in New Zealand Coastal Marine Invertebrates, Volume 1, edited by deCook, S., 177–228. Christchurch: Canterbury University Press.
  • Cairns, Stephen D. and Bayer, Frederick M. 2009. "Chapter 13. Octocorallia (Cnidaria) of the Gulf of Mexico." in Gulf of Mexico–Origins, Waters, and Biota. Volume 1. Biodiversity., edited by Felder, Darryl L. and Camp, David K., 321–331. College Station, Texas: Texas A&M Press.
  • Cairns, Stephen D. and Fautin, D. G. 2009. "Chapter 12. Cnidaria: Introduction." in Gulf of Mexico–Origins, Waters, and Biota. Volume 1. Biodiversity., edited by Felder, Darryl L. and Camp, David K., 315–319. College Station, Texas.: Texas A&M Press.
  • Cairns, Stephen D., Gerhswin, Lisa A., Brook, Fred, Pugh, Philip R., Dawson, Elliott W., Ocaña V, Oscar, Vervoort, Will, Williams, Gary, Watson, Jeanette, Opresko, Dennis M., Schuchert, Peter, Hine, P. Michael, Gordon, Dennis P., Campbell, Hamish J., Wright, Athony J., Sanchez, Juana, and Fautin, Daphne G. 2009. "Phylum Cnidaria; Corals, Medusae, Hydroids, Myxozoa." in New Zealand Inventory of Biodiversity. Volume 1. Kingdom Animalia: Radiata, Lophotrochozoa, Deuterostomia, edited by Gordon, Dennis P., 59–101. Christchurch: Canterbury University Press.
  • Cairns, Stephen D., Jaap, W. C., and Lang, J. C. 2009. "Chapter 14. Scleractinia (Cnidaria) of the Gulf of Mexico." in Gulf of Mexico–Origins, Waters, and Biota. Volume 1. Biodiversity., edited by Felder, Darryl L. and Camp, David K., 333–346. College Station, Texas: Texas A&M Press.
  • Calder, D. R. and Cairns, Stephen D. 2009. "Chapter 19. Hydroids (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) of the Gulf of Mexico." in Gulf of Mexico–Origins, Waters, and Biota. Volume 1. Biodiversity., edited by Felder, Darryl L. and Camp, David K., 381–394. College Station, Texas: Texas A&M Press.
  • Ofwegen, L., Breedy, Odalisca, and Cairns, Stephen D. 2009. "Octocorallia - Octocorals." in Marine Benthic Fauna of Chilean Patagonia, edited by Haussermann, V. and Forsterra, G., 177–214. Santiago, Chile: Nature in Focus.
  • Cairns, Stephen D. and Chapman, R. E. 2001. "Biogeographic affinities of the North Atlantic deep-water Scleractinia." in Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Deep-Sea Corals, Ecology Action Centre and Nova Scotia Museum, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, 30–57.
  • Cairns, Stephen D., Hoeksema, B. W., and der Land, J. van. 2001. "Scleractinia." in European Register of Marine Species. A checklist of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Patrimoines naturels 50, 109–110.
  • Cairns, Stephen D. 1999. "Stratigraphic Distribution of Neogene Caribbean Azooxanthellae Corals (Scleractinia and Stylasteridae)." in A Paleobiotic Survey of Caribbean Faunas From the Neogene of the Isthmus of Panama, edited by Collins, Laurel S. and Coates, Anthony G., 109–118. Bulletins of American Paleontology. Allen Press.
  • Collins, Laurel S., Aguilera, Orangel A., Borne, Pamela F., and Cairns, Stephen D. 1999. "A Paleoenvironmental Analysis of the Neogene of Caribbean Panamá and Costa Rica Using Several Phyla." in A Paleobiotic Survey of Caribbean Faunas From the Neogene of the Isthmus of Panama, edited by Collins, Laurel S. and Coates, Anthony G., 81. Allen Press.
  • Amaral, F. D., Cairns, Stephen D., and Schlenz, E. 1998. "Scanning electron microscopy of hydrocoral skeletons from Brazil." in 22nd Brazilian Congress on Zoology, 7–8.
  • Cairns, Stephen D. 1987. "Evolutionary trends in the Stylasteridae (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa)." in Modern Trends in the Systematics, Ecology, and Evolution of Hydroids and Hydromedudae, edited by Bouillon, J., 257–274. Clarendon Press: Oxford.
  • Cairns, Stephen D., den Hartog, J. C., Arenson, C., and Rützler, Klaus. 1986. "Scleractinia." in Marine Fauna and Flora of Bermuda, edited by Sterrer, W., 159. John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
  • Cairns, Stephen D., den Hartog, J. C., and Arneson, C. 1986. "Anthozoa." in Marine fauna and flora of Bermuda, 159–194.
  • Cairns, Stephen D., den Hartog, J. C., and Arneson, C. 1986. "Class Anthozoa." in Marine Fauna and Flora of Bermuda, edited by Sterrer, W., 159–194. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

... more... less

Dataset
  • Packer, David B., Nizinski, Martha S., Cairns, Stephen D., and Hourigan, Thomas F. 2017. [Dataset] "Deep‐Sea Coral Taxa in the U.S. Northeast Region: Depth and Geographical Distribution." Distributed by States. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS‐OHC‐4.
  • Cairns, Stephen D. 2006. [Dataset] "Station Data to Accompany Publications of S.D. Cairns." Distributed by Smithsonian Research Online.