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Ph.D. in Biology (Plant Biology). The Pennsylvania State University, Pennsylvania, USA.
Master's in Biology. University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras, Puerto Rico.
Bachelor in Biology. University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras, Puerto Rico.
Taxonomy, molecular phylogenetics, organelle structure, natural history and ecology of mistletoes, particularly from the Neotropics. Taxonomy, ecology, and floristics of the Caribbean Islands.