Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History

Ferns, Spores, and Plant Reproduction


National Middle School Science Standards

Life Science

Key Terms

fern, plant, reproduction, seed-free, spore, dispersal

Key Concepts

  • Reproduction of plants
  • Alternation of generations
  • Seeds and spores
  • Characteristics of ferns
  • Technology used by botanists

Resource Types

Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS)

The Fern Reproduction teaching resources support students in meeting the following middle school NGSS Performance Expectations.

Life Science

MS-LS1 From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes

  • MS-LS1-4 Use argument based on empirical evidence and scientific reasoning to support an explanation for how characteristic animal behaviors and specialized plant structures affect the probability of successful reproduction of animals and plants respectively. 

MS-LS2 Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics

  • MS-LS2-2 Construct an explanation that predicts patterns of interactions among organisms across multiple ecosystems.

MS-LS4 Biological Evolution: Unity and Diversity

  • MS-LS4-4 Construct an explanation based on evidence that describes how genetic variations of traits in a population increase some individuals' probability of surviving and reproducing in a specific environment.

Resource Type
Subject Guides
Grade Level
Learning Standards
Next Generation Science Standards
Life Science