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Lewis & Clark as Naturalists
The Journals Lewis and Clark as Naturalists

salal

Capt. Lewis, February 4, 1806--the Elk are in much better order in the point near the praries than they are in the Woody country arround us or up the Netul [ed. - Lewis and Clark River]. in the praries they feed on grass and rushes, considerable quantities of which are yet green and succule[n]t. in the woody country their food is huckle berry bushes, fern, and an evergreen shrub which resembles the lorel in some measure; the last constitutes the greater part of their food and grows abundant]y through all the timbered country, particularly the hillsides and more broken parts of it.

Capt. Clark, February 4, 1806--the Elk are in much better order in the point near the praries than they are in the woodey country around us or up the Netul. in the praries they feed on grass and rushes, which are yet green. in the woddey countrey their food is huckleberry bushes, fern, and the Shallon an evergreen shrub, which resembles the Lorel in some measure; the last constitutes the greater part of their food and grows abundant through all the timbered country, particularly the hill sides and more broken parts of it.

Capt. Lewis, February 8, 1806--I have discovered that the shrub and fruit discribed on the 26th of January is not that which the Indians call the Shal-lon, but that is such as is there discribed, and the berry is estemed and used by the natives as there mentioned except that [it] is not like the shallon, baked in large loaves, but is simply dryed in the sun for winter uce, when they either eat them in thir dryed state or boil them in water. The Shallon is the production of a shrub which I have heretofore taken to be a speceis of loral and mentioned as abounding in this neighbourhood and that the Elk fed much on it's leaves. it generally rises to the hight of 3 feet but not unusually attains to that of 5 feet. it grows very thick and is from the size of a goos quill to that of a man's thumb, celindric, the bark of the older or larger part of the stock is of a redish brown colour while that of the younger branches and succulent shoots are red where most exposed to the sun and green elsewhere. the stem is simple branching reclining, and partially fluxouse [flexuous], or at least the smaler stocks or such parts of them and the boughs as produce the leaves, take a different direction at the insertion of every petiole. the leaf is oval four & 3/4 inches in length and 2 1/2 in width. petiolate, the petiole short only 3/8th of an inch in length, celindric with a slight channel on it's upper side where it is generally red; undivided or entire, slightly serrate, the apex termineating in an accute point; the upper disk of a glossey deep green, the under disk of a pale green; veined. the leaves are also alternate and two ranked. the root is horizontal puting forth perpendicular radicles. this shrub is an evergreen. the fruit is a deep perple berry about the size of a buck short or common black cherry, of an ovate form tho reather more bluntly pointed, than at the insertion of the peduncle; at this extremity, the thin coloured. membranous pellicle, which forms the surface of the pericarp, is divided into five accute angular points, which meet in the center, and contains a soft pulp of the same colour invelloping a great number of small brown kidney formed seeds. each berry is supported by a seperate celindric peduncle of half an inch in length; these to the number of ten or twelve issue from a common peduncle or footstalk which is fuxouse [flexuous] and forms the termination of the twig of the present years growth; each peduncle supporting a berry is furnished with one oblong bracte placed at it's insertion on the common foot-[stalk] which when the fruit is ripe withers with the peduncle.

Capt. Clark, February 8, 1806--The Shallon is a production of shrub which I have taken heretofore to be a species of Loral and mentioned as abounding in this neighbourhood, and that the Elk feed much on its leaves. it generally rises to the hight of 3 feet, and not unusially attain to that of 5 feet. it grows very thick and is from the size of that of a goose quil to that of a mans thumb, celendric. the bark of the older or larger part of the stalk is of a redish brown colour whilst that of the younger branches & succulent shoots are red when most exposed to the Sun and green elsewhere. the stem is simple branching, reclineing and partially f[1]uxouse, or at least the smaller stalks or such parts of them and their boughs which produce the leaves, take a different direction at the insertion of every petiole. [Captain Clark inserted a drawing of a stem and two leaves here.] A,A, the leaves as they grow from the stalk   B.B.B the stalk between each leaf. The leaf A is oval 4 and 3/4 inches in length, and 2. and a half in width. petiolate, the potiale short only 3/8 of an inch in length cilindric with a slight channel on its upper side where it is generally red; undevided, or entire, slightly serrate, the apex termonating in an accute point; the upper disk of a glossy green, the under disk of a pail green, veined. the leaves are also alternate and two ranked. the root is horozontal, putting fo[r]th pirpendicular radicles. This shrub is an evergreen. the frute is a deep purple berry about the size of a buck shot or common black cherry, of an ovale form, thô reather more bluntly pointed than at the insertion of the peduncle, at the extremity, the thin coloured membranus pellicle, which forms the surfice of the paricarp, is divided into 4 angu[l]ar points, which meet at the center, and contains a soft pulp of the same colour invelloping a great number of small brown kidney formed seeds, each berry is supported by a seperate celindric peduncle of half an inch in length, these to the number of 10 or 12 issue from a common peduncle of [or] footstalk which forms the termination of the twig of the present years groth; each peduncle supporting a berry is furnished with one oblong bracte placed at it's insertion on the common footstalk, which when the frute is ripe withers with the peduncle.

 
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