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Department ofVertebrate Zoology

Division of Fishes

Carl Hansen
© Smithsonian Institution
bar Carole Baldwin
    Carole Baldwin
    Research Zoologist

  • Phone: (202)633-1205
  • Fax: (202)633-0182
  • E-mail: baldwinc[at]

  • Mailing Address:
    Smithsonian Institution
    PO Box 37012, MRC 159
    Washington, DC 20013-7012

  • Shipping Address:
    Smithsonian Institution
    National Museum of Natural History
    10th and Constitution Ave, NW
    Washington, DC 20560-0159

Related Links

Journey to Galapagos


Ph.D. Marine Science, College of William and Mary
M.S. Marine Biology, College of Charleston
B.S. Biology, James Madison University

Research Interests

Diversity and evolution of coral-reef and deep-sea fishes; taxonomy of larval fishes and their utility in evolutionary studies; patterns of morphological divergence and speciation; marine conservation; public communication of marine science.

Recent Publications

Hoeksema, Bert W., Bongaerts, Pim and Baldwin, Carole C. 2017. High coral cover at lower mesophotic depths: a dense Agaricia community at the leeward side of Curaçao, Dutch Caribbean. Marine Biodiversity, 47(1): 67-70. doi:10.1007/s12526-015-0431-8

Baldwin, Carole C., Pitassy, Diane E. and Robertson, D. Ross 2016. A new deep-reef scorpionfish (Teleostei, Scorpaenidae, Scorpaenodes) from the southern Caribbean with comments on depth distributions and relationships of western Atlantic members of the genus. ZooKeys, 606: 141-158. doi:10.3897/zookeys.606.8590

Attaran-Farimani, Gilan, Estekani, Sanaz, Springer, Victor G., Crimmen, Oliver, Johnson, G. David and Baldwin, Carole C. 2016. Validation of the synonymy of the teleost blenniid fish species Salarias phantasticus Boulenger 1897 and Salarias anomalus Regan 1905 with Ecsenius pulcher (Murray 1887) based on DNA barcoding and morphology. Zootaxa, 4072(2): 171 doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4072.2.2

Angulo, Arturo, Baldwin, Carole C. and Robertson, D. Ross 2016. A new species of Leptoderma Vaillant, 1886 (Osmeriformes: Alepocephalidae) from the Pacific coast of Central America. Zootaxa, 4066(4): 493-500. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4066.4.10

Sun, Ying, Huang, Yu, Li, Xiaofeng, Baldwin, Carole C., Zhou, Zhuocheng, Yan, Zhixiang, Crandall, Keith A., Zhang, Yong, Zhao, Xiaomeng, Wang, Min, Wong, Alex, Fang, Chao, Zhang, Xinhui, Huang, Hai, Lopez, Jose V., Kilfoyle, Kirk, Zhang, Yong, Ortí, Guillermo, Venkatesh, Byrappa and Shi, Qiong 2016. Fish-T1K (Transcriptomes of 1,000 Fishes) Project: large-scale transcriptome data for fish evolution studies. GigaScience, 5 doi:10.1186/s13742-016-0124-7

Tornabene, Luke, Van Tassell, James L., Gilmore, Richard G., Robertson, D. Ross, Young, Forrest and Baldwin, Carole C. 2016. Molecular phylogeny, analysis of character evolution, and submersible collections enable a new classification of a diverse group of gobies (Teleostei: Gobiidae: Nes subgroup), including nine new species and four new genera. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 177(4): 764-812. doi:10.1111/zoj.12394

Tornabene, Luke M., van Tassell, James L., Robertson, D. Ross and Baldwin, Carole C. 2016. Repeated invasions into the twilight zone: evolutionary origins of a novel assemblage of fishes from deep Caribbean reefs. Molecular ecology, 25(15): 3662-3682. doi:10.1111/mec.13704

Tornabene, Luke M., Robertson, D. Ross and Baldwin, Carole C. 2016. Varicus lacerta, a new species of goby (Teleostei, Gobiidae, Gobiosomatini, Nes subgroup) from a mesophotic reef in the southern Caribbean. ZooKeys, 596: 143-156. doi:10.3897/zookeys.596.8217

Baldwin, Carole C., Robertson, D. Ross, Nonaka, Ai and Tornabene, Luke M. 2016. Two new deep-reef basslets (Teleostei, Grammatidae, Lipogramma), with comments on the eco-evolutionary relationships of the genus. ZooKeys, 638: 45-82. doi:10.3897/zookeys.638.10455

Anderson, William D., Jr., Johnson, G. David and Baldwin, Carole C. 2015. Review of the Splendid Perches, Callanthias (Percoidei: Callanthiidae). Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, 105(3): 1-126.

Vaslet, A., Phillips, D. L., France, Christine A. M., Feller, Ilka C. and Baldwin, Carole C. 2015. Trophic behaviour of juvenile reef fishes inhabiting interlinked mangrove-seagrass habitats in offshore mangrove islets. Journal of fish biology, 87(2): 256-273. doi:10.1111/jfb.12715

Baldwin, Carole C. and Robertson, D. Ross 2015. A new, mesophotic Coryphopterus goby (Teleostei, Gobiidae) from the southern Caribbean, with comments on relationships and depth distributions within the genus. Zookeys, 513: 123-142. doi:10.3897/zookeys.513.9998

Rocha, Luiz A., Rocha, Claudia R., Baldwin, Carole C., Weigt, Lee A. and Mcfield, Melanie 2015. Invasive lionfish preying on critically endangered reef fish - Springer. Coral Reefs, 34(3): 803-806. doi:10.1007/s00338-015-1293-z

Rocha, L. A., Aleixo, A., Allen, G., Almeda, F., Baldwin, Carole C., Barclay, M. V. L., Bates, J. M., Bauer, A. M., Benzoni, F., Berns, C. M., Berumen, M. L., Blackburn, D. C., Blum, S., Bolanos, F., Bowie, R. C. K., Britz, R., Brown, R. M., Cadena, C. D., Carpenter, K., Ceriaco, L. M., Chakrabarty, P., Chaves, G., Choat, J. H., Clements, K. D., Collette, Bruce B., et al 2014. Specimen collection: An essential tool. Science, 344(6186): 814-815. doi:10.1126/science.344.6186.814

Baldwin, Carole C. and Johnson, G. David 2014. Connectivity across the Caribbean Sea: DNA Barcoding and Morphology Unite an Enigmatic Fish Larva from the Florida Straits with a New Species of Sea Bass from Deep Reefs off Curaçao. PLoS ONE, 9(5): 1-15. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0097661

Conway, Kevin W., Baldwin, Carole C. and White, Macaulay D. 2014. Cryptic Diversity and Venom Glands in Western Atlantic Clingfishes of the Genus Acyrtus (Teleostei: Gobiesocidae). PLoS ONE, 9(5): 1-17. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0097664

Baldwin, Carole C. and Robertson, D. Ross 2014. A new Liopropoma sea bass (Serranidae, Epinephelinae, Liopropomini) from deep reefs off Curaçao, southern Caribbean, with comments on depth distributions of western Atlantic liopropomins. ZooKeys, 409: 71-92. doi:10.3897/zookeys.409.7249

Baldwin, Carole C. 2013. Deep reef observation project (DROP):a Smithsonian-substation Curaçao collaboration. In: Lang, Michael A. and Sayer, Martin D. J., Proceedings of the Joint International Scientific Diving Symposium American Academy of Underwater Sciences And European Scientific Diving Panel. : ,() pp.13-15.

Fishelson, Lev, Baldwin, Carole C. and Hastings, Philip A. 2013. Gonad morphology, gametogenesis, and reproductive modes in fishes of the tribe starksiini (teleostei, blenniiformes). Journal of Morphology, 274(5): 496-511. doi:10.1002/jmor.20110

Boehm, J. T., Woodall, Lucy, Teske, Peter R., Lourie, Sara A., Baldwin, Carole C., Waldman, John and Hickerson, Mike 2013. Marine dispersal and barriers drive Atlantic seahorse diversification. Journal of Biogeography, 40(10): 1839-1849. doi:10.1111/jbi.12127

Baldwin, Carole C. and Robertson, D. Ross 2013. A new Haptoclinus blenny (Teleostei, Labrisomidae) from deep reefs off Curaçao, southern Caribbean, with comments on relationships of the genus. Zookeys, 306: 71-81. doi:10.3897/zookeys.306.5198

Baldwin, Carole C. 2013. The phylogenetic significance of colour patterns in marine teleost larvae. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 168(3): 496-563. doi:10.1111/zoj.12033

Chakrabarty, Prosanta, Warren, Melanie, Page, Lawrence and Baldwin, Carole C. 2013. GenSeq: An updated nomenclature and ranking for genetic sequences from type and non-type sources. Zookeys, 346: 29-41. doi:10.3897/zookeys.346.5753

Frable, Benjamin W., Baldwin, Carole C., Luther, Brendan M. and Weigt, Lee A. 2013. A new species of western Atlantic lizardfish (Teleostei: Synodontidae: Synodus) and resurrection of Synodus bondi Fowler, 1939, as a valid species from the Caribbean with redescriptions of S. bondi, S. foetens (Linnaeus, 1766), and S. intermedius (Agassiz, 1829). Fishery Bulletin, 111(2): 122-146. doi:10.7755/FB.111.2.2

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